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BACKGROUND The irrational use of drugs was a global problem, especially in developing countries. However, there are no studies available on irrational use of drugs in rural Western China. OBJECTIVE To assess the drug prescribing patterns using World Health Organization Drug Use Indicators at village health clinics in rural areas of Western China. (More)
OBJECTIVES To explore antibiotic prescribing patterns in rural areas across 10 provinces of Western China and to compare the patterns among these provinces. METHODS About 20 125 prescriptions were collected from 680 primary health clinics in villages from 40 counties in 10 provinces of Western China. Percentage of prescriptions with antibiotics and number(More)
BACKGROUND Polypharmacy represents a growing public health concern for its associations with drug-related adverse events, poor adherence, medication errors and increased healthcare costs. AIM To assess the occurrence of polypharmacy prescribing and to identify the correlates in terms of doctors and patients characteristics in rural Western China. (More)
BACKGROUND Unsafe use and overuse of injection play an important role in transmission of very serious blood-borne infections. No studies have been conducted to investigate the levels and determinants of injection utilization in rural Western China. METHODS A total of 20 125 prescriptions were collected from 680 village clinics across 10 provinces of(More)
A rich variety of spiral patterns such as single-armed spiral, dipole spirals, target pattern, multiarmed spiral, and spiral defect chaos state have been observed in ac-driven atmospheric pressure gas discharge. The confined and free boundary conditions are defined by means of whether there is a sidewall in the discharge domain or not, respectively. In the(More)
We report the observation of a square superlattice pattern in a dielectric barrier discharge system. The correlation measurements indicate that the square superlattice pattern is an interleaving of two different transient square sublattices. The interplay between the charge pattern and the discharge filament pattern is discussed.
We report on the observation of a hexagonal superlattice state (HSS) in dielectric barrier discharge in air/argon near atmospheric pressure. It bifurcates directly from the hexagonal state by increasing the applied voltage. The correlation measurements indicate that the HSS is an interleaving of three different transient sublattices. The spatial power(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the protective rate and the variation of HFRS-IgG on hemorrhagical fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) vaccine. METHODS Cluster, random sampling and cross-sectional study were used to assess the protective rate of HFRS vaccination. Level of HFRS-IgG was detected with ELISA in epidemic and non-epidemic areas of HFRS. RESULTS Curve(More)
We report on the observation of a white-eye pattern in an air dielectric barrier discharge. The patterned discharges undergo a development as follows: random spots-quasihexagonal pattern-hexagonal pattern (type I)-hexagonal pattern (type II)-white-eye pattern-chaos, as the voltage is increased. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the patterned discharges(More)
One of the challenges that plasma research encounters is how to generate a large-scale plasma plume at atmospheric pressure. Through utilizing a third electrode biased by a direct-current voltage, a longer plasma plume is generated by a plasma jet in dielectric barrier discharge configurations. Results indicate that the plume length increases until it(More)