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Induction of the transcriptional repressor Bcl-6 in CD4(+) T cells is critical for the differentiation of follicular helper T cells (T(FH) cells), which are essential for B cell-mediated immunity. In contrast, the transcription factor Blimp1 (encoded by Prdm1) inhibits T(FH) differentiation by antagonizing Bcl-6. Here we found that the transcription factor(More)
During chronic viral infection, virus-specific CD8(+) T cells become exhausted, exhibit poor effector function and lose memory potential. However, exhausted CD8(+) T cells can still contain viral replication in chronic infections, although the mechanism of this containment is largely unknown. Here we show that a subset of exhausted CD8(+) T cells expressing(More)
mTOR has important roles in regulation of both innate and adaptive immunity, but whether and how mTOR modulates humoral immune responses have yet to be fully understood. To address this issue, we examined the effects of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR, on B cell and CD4 T cell responses during acute infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus.(More)
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine-threonine kinase that has been shown to be essential for the differentiation and function of various immune cells. Earlier in vitro studies showed that mTOR signalling regulates B-cell biology by supporting their activation and proliferation. However, how mTOR signalling temporally regulates in vivo(More)
Follicular regulatory T (Tfr) cells differentiate from conventional regulatory T (Treg) cells and suppress excessive germinal center (GC) responses by acting on both GC B cells and T follicular helper (Tfh) cells. Here, we examined the impact of mTOR, a serine/threonine protein kinase that senses and integrates diverse environmental cues, on the(More)
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