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Akt is a central regulator of cell growth. Its activity can be negatively regulated by the phosphatase PHLPP that specifically dephosphorylates the hydrophobic motif of Akt (Ser473 in Akt1). However, how PHLPP is targeted to Akt is not clear. Here we show that FKBP51 (FK506-binding protein 51) acts as a scaffolding protein for Akt and PHLPP and promotes(More)
p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) is known to be an important mediator of the DNA damage response, with dimethylation of histone H4 lysine 20 (H4K20me2) critical to the recruitment of 53BP1 to double-strand breaks (DSBs). However, it is not clear how 53BP1 is specifically targeted to the sites of DNA damage, as the overall level of H4K20me2 does not seem to(More)
DNA methylation patterns are important for establishing cell, tissue, and organism phenotypes, but little is known about their contribution to natural human variation. To determine their contribution to variability, we have generated genome-scale DNA methylation profiles of three human populations (Caucasian-American, African-American, and Han(More)
Aromatase [cytochrome P450 19 (CYP19)] is a critical enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis, and aromatase inhibitors are of increasing importance in the treatment of breast cancer. We set out to identify and characterize genetic polymorphisms in the aromatase gene, CYP19, as a step toward pharmacogenomic studies of aromatase inhibitors. Specifically, we(More)
Arsenic contaminates ground water worldwide. Methylation is an important reaction in the biotransformation of arsenic. We set out to study the pharmacogenetics of human arsenic methyltransferase (AS3MT, previously CYT19). After cloning the human AS3MT cDNA, we annotated the human gene and resequenced its 5'-flanking region, exons, and splice junctions using(More)
In response to DNA damage, many DNA damage factors, such as MDC1 and 53BP1, redistribute to sites of DNA damage. The mechanism governing the turnover of these factors at DNA damage sites, however, remains enigmatic. Here, we show that MDC1 is sumoylated following DNA damage, and the sumoylation of MDC1 at Lys1840 is required for MDC1 degradation and removal(More)
From the Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Mayo Medical School, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (L.W., R.M.W.); and the UNC Institute for Pharmacogenomics and Individualized Therapy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (H.L.M). Address reprint requests to Dr. Weinshilboum at the Division(More)
The thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) genetic polymorphism is one of the most 'mature' examples in pharmacogenetics. That is true because of its importance clinically for the individualization of thiopurine drug therapy and also because TPMT has provided novel insights into molecular mechanisms responsible for the functional effects of common genetic(More)
Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) catalyses the S-methylation of thiopurine drugs such as 6-mercaptopurine. A common genetic polymorphism for TPMT is associated with large individual variations in thiopurine drug toxicity and therapeutic efficacy. TPMT*3A, the most common variant allele in Caucasians, has two alterations in amino acid sequence,(More)
Two cytidine analogues, gemcitabine (dFdC) and 1-beta-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine (AraC), show significant therapeutic effect in a variety of cancers. However, response to these drugs varies widely. Evidence from tumor biopsy samples shows that expression levels for genes involved in the cytidine transport, metabolism, and bioactivation pathway contribute to(More)