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Bacterial genomes frequently contain operons that encode a toxin and its antidote. These 'toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules' have an important role in bacterial stress physiology and might form the basis of multidrug resistance. The toxins in TA modules act as gyrase poisons or stall the ribosome by mediating the cleavage of mRNA. The antidotes contain an(More)
F4 fimbriae encoded by the fae operon are the major colonization factors associated with porcine neonatal and postweaning diarrhoea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Via the chaperone/usher pathway, the F4 fimbriae are assembled as long polymers of the major subunit FaeG, which also possesses the adhesive properties of the fimbriae.(More)
The F17-G adhesin at the tip of flexible F17 fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli mediates binding to N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine-presenting receptors on the microvilli of the intestinal epithelium of ruminants. We report the 1.7 A resolution crystal structure of the lectin domain of F17-G, both free and in complex with N-acetylglucosamine. The(More)
Toxin-antitoxin modules are small regulatory circuits that ensure survival of bacterial populations under challenging environmental conditions. The ccd toxin-antitoxin module on the F plasmid codes for the toxin CcdB and its antitoxin CcdA. CcdB poisons gyrase while CcdA actively dissociates CcdB:gyrase complexes in a process called rejuvenation. The(More)
The legume lectins are widely used as a model system for studying protein-carbohydrate and protein-protein interactions. They exhibit a fascinating quaternary structure variation, which becomes important when they interact with multivalent glycoconjugates, for instance those on cell surfaces. Recently, it has become clear that certain lectins form weakly(More)
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli expressing F4 fimbriae are the major cause of porcine colibacillosis and are responsible for significant death and morbidity in neonatal and postweaned piglets. Via the chaperone-usher pathway, F4 fimbriae are assembled into thin, flexible polymers mainly composed of the single-domain adhesin FaeG. The F4 fimbrial system has(More)
The Staphylococcus aureus genome contains three toxin-antitoxin modules, including one mazEF module, SamazEF. Using an on-column separation protocol we are able to obtain large amounts of wild-type SaMazF toxin. The protein is well-folded and highly resistant against thermal unfolding but aggregates at elevated temperatures. Crystallographic and nuclear(More)
Fimbriae are long, proteinaceous adhesion organelles expressed on the bacterial envelope, evolutionarily adapted by Escherichia coli strains for the colonization of epithelial linings. Using glycan arrays of the Consortium for Functional Glycomics (CFG), the lectin domains were screened of the fimbrial adhesins F17G and FedF from enterotoxigenic E. coli(More)
To survive hostile conditions, the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces millimolar concentrations of mycothiol as a redox buffer against oxidative stress. The reductases that couple the reducing power of mycothiol to redox active proteins in the cell are not known. We report a novel mycothiol-dependent reductase (mycoredoxin-1) with a CGYC(More)
Proteases carry out a number of crucial functions inside and outside the cell. To protect the cells against the potentially lethal activities of these enzymes, specific inhibitors are produced to tightly regulate the protease activity. Independent reports suggest that the Kunitz-soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) family has the potential to inhibit proteases(More)