Liesbet Goossens

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BACKGROUND The amygdala is implicated as a key brain structure in fear processing. Studies exploring this process using the paradigm of fear conditioning have implicated the amygdala in fear acquisition and in generating behavioral fear responses. As such, fear extinction could be expected to induce a reduction in amygdala activity. However, exposure in(More)
The human amygdala plays a pivotal role in the processing of socially significant information. Anatomical studies show that the human amygdala is not a single homogeneous structure but is composed of segregable subregions. These have recently been functionally delineated by using a combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and(More)
In the present study, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine the neural correlates of phobic fear by exposing spider phobic subjects to a visual presentation of spiders. In contrast to control subjects, spider phobics showed significantly increased activation in the amygdala and the pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus on(More)
BACKGROUND The biological basis of uncued panic attacks is not yet understood. An important theory concerning the nature and cause of panic disorder is the 'suffocation false alarm theory'. This alarm is supposed to be over-sensitive in panic disorder patients and can be triggered by CO2. No neurobiological substrate has been identified for such an alarm.(More)
Inhaling carbon dioxide (CO2)-enriched air induces fear and panic symptoms resembling real-life panic attacks, the hallmark of panic disorder. The present study aimed to describe the emotional and cardiovascular effects evoked by inhaling CO2, taking shortcomings of previous studies into account. Healthy volunteers underwent a double inhalation of 0, 9,(More)
Hippocampal learning is thought to induce metaplasticity, which can facilitate subsequent learning. Administered at single low doses, the N-methyl-d-aspartate-type glutamate receptor antagonist memantine predominantly blocks α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChRs). Placebo-controlled administration of a single low dose of memantine in a(More)
Until recently, genetic research into panic disorder (PD) has had only limited success. Inspired by rodent research, demonstrating that the acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) is critically involved in the behavioral fear response to carbon dioxide (CO2) exposure, variants in the human homologue gene amiloride-sensitive cation channel 2 (ACCN2) were shown(More)
BACKGROUND A disproportionately large number of persons with panic disorder (PD) smoke cigarettes compared to people in the general population and individuals with other anxiety disorders. Clinical and epidemiological data suggest that cigarette smoking increases the risk for the development and maintenance of PD. The carbon dioxide (CO(2)) challenge is(More)
Recent neuro-imaging studies have implicated the cerebellum in several higher-order functions. Its role in human fear conditioning has, however, received limited attention. The current meta-analysis examines the loci of cerebellar contributions to fear conditioning in healthy subjects, thus mapping, for the first time, the neural response to conditioned(More)
The current diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders are being challenged by the heterogeneity and the symptom overlap of psychiatric disorders. Therefore, a framework toward a more etiology-based classification has been initiated by the US National Institute of Mental Health, the research domain criteria project. The(More)