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The halophile Vibrio vulnificus is an etiologic agent of human mortality from seafood-borne infections. We applied whole-genome sequencing and comparative analysis to investigate the evolution of this pathogen. The genome of biotype 1 strain, V. vulnificus YJ016, was sequenced and includes two chromosomes of estimated 3377 kbp and 1857 kbp in size, and a(More)
Vibrio vulnificus is a marine bacterium causing serious septicemia and wound infection in humans. It produces an RTX toxin that can lyse a variety of cells and is important for virulence in mice. In this study, we explored the role of RTX in pathogenesis by characterizing an RTX-deficient mutant. This mutant showed an ∼2-log reduction in virulence for mice(More)
Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a severe, newly emergent penaeid shrimp disease caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus that has already led to tremendous losses in the cultured shrimp industry. Until now, its disease-causing mechanism has remained unclear. Here we show that an AHPND-causing strain of V. parahaemolyticus contains a 70-kbp(More)
Vibrio vulnificus is a marine bacterium that causes human wound infections and septicemia with a high mortality rate. V. vulnificus strains from different clinical and environmental sources or geographic regions have been successfully characterized by ribotyping and several other methods. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a highly discriminative(More)
We isolated a Vibrio vulnificus mutant that was deficient in both metalloprotease and cytolysin by allelic exchange. The virulence of this mutant in mice and its cytotoxicity for HEp-2 cells were comparable to those of the wild-type strain, indicating that neither factor was essential for these properties. The cytolysin, but not the protease, seemed to be(More)
Cytotoxicity is an important virulence determinant in the pathogenesis of Vibrio vulnificus, and two cytotoxins, RTX (encoded by rtxA1) and cytolysin/hemolysin (encoded by vvhA), have been identified in this organism. We showed that the quorum-sensing regulator LuxO controlled the cytotoxicity of this organism: a ΔluxO mutant exhibited low cytotoxicity,(More)
Previous work suggested that a metalloprotease, Vvp, may be a virulence factor of Vibrio vulnificus, which causes severe wound infection and septicemia in humans. To determine the role of Vvp in pathogenesis, we isolated an isogenic protease-deficient (PD) mutant of Vibrio vulnificus by in vivo allelic exchange. This PD mutant was as virulent as its(More)
The Vibrio vulnificus nuclease, Vvn, is a non-specific periplasmic nuclease capable of digesting DNA and RNA. The crystal structure of Vvn and that of Vvn mutant H80A in complex with DNA were resolved at 2.3 A resolution. Vvn has a novel mixed alpha/beta topology containing four disulfide bridges, suggesting that Vvn is not active under reducing conditions(More)
We sequenced four Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains, three of which caused serious acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease. Sequence analysis of the virulent strains revealed not only genes related to cholera toxin and the type IV pilus/type IV secretion system but also a unique, previously unreported, large extrachromosomal plasmid that encodes a homolog to(More)
INTRODUCTION We conducted the present study to evaluate the changes in serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in patients with severe sepsis and to investigate the association between serum TAC and clinical severity. METHOD This was a prospective observational study involving a sample of patients who met established criteria for severe sepsis and were(More)