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Nicotine and capsaicin produce many similar physiological responses that include pain, irritation, and vasodilation. To determine whether neuronal nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are present on capsaicin-sensitive neurons, whole cell patch-clamp recordings were performed on rat trigeminal ganglion cells. It was found that approximately 20% of the(More)
1. Whole cell patch-clamp records from cultured rat trigeminal ganglion cells having soma diameters ranging from 20 to 50 microM revealed that capsaicin activated two inward currents and an outward current. At -60 mV, the inward currents could be distinguished by their different peak times, which were 4.2 +/- 3.1 and 41.4 +/- 16.4 (SD) s. 2. Cells with the(More)
Vanilloid receptors are activated by capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in hot pepper. They are also specifically and competitively inhibited by capsazepine (CPZ). To determine whether CPZ is specific to vanilloid receptors, its effects were tested on the currents evoked by nicotine in rat trigeminal ganglia. We found that 10 microM CPZ, a concentration(More)
Transient receptor potential (TRP) genes encode a family of related ion-channel subunits. This family consists of cation-selective, calcium-permeable channels that include a group of vanilloid receptor channels (TRPV) implicated in pain and inflammation. These channels are activated by diverse stimuli, including capsaicin, lipids, membrane deformation,(More)
Activation of primary trigeminal (TG) neurons by protons, capsaicin, or heat can evoke a variety of sensations, including tingling, stinging, warmth, and burning. Capsaicin and acid are trigeminal stimulants that are important in gustatory physiology. These stimuli can activate H(+)-gated ion channels and heterologously expressed VR1 receptors (vanilloid(More)
Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in hot pepper, activates and subsequently desensitizes a subset of polymodal nociceptors. Because its initial application to skin produces pain, nonpungent analogs such as olvanil and glyceryl nonivamide (GLNVA) were synthesized to enhance its clinical use. To explore how these nonpungent analogs differ from capsaicin,(More)
1. Capsaicin, piperine, and zingerone are natural pungent-tasting compounds found in chili pepper, black pepper, and ginger, respectively. These structurally related compounds evoke many of the same physiological responses, but at comparable concentrations capsaicin produces complete tachyphylaxis, piperine produces partial tachyphylaxis, and zingerone can(More)
ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) enhances cognitive functions; however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Compelling evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid/endovanilloid systems play a pivotal role in regulating cognitive function. Thus, to correlate the effect of DHA on cognitive performance with the(More)
The initial steps in taste and olfaction result from the activation by chemical stimuli of taste receptor cells (TRCs) and olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). In parallel with these two pathways is the chemosensitive trigeminal pathway whose neurons terminate in the oral and nasal cavities and which are activated by many of the same chemical stimuli that(More)
The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) mediates inflammation and hyperalgesia, although the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. To better understand such molecular and cellular mechanisms, we investigated how IL-1beta modulates the total voltage-dependent sodium currents (INa) and its tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) component in(More)