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During T cell signaling, Itk selectively phosphorylates a tyrosine within its own SH3 domain and a tyrosine within PLCgamma1. We find that the remote SH2 domain in each of these substrates is required to achieve efficient tyrosine phosphorylation by Itk and extend this observation to two other Tec family kinases, Btk and Tec. Additionally, we detect a(More)
Tec family nonreceptor tyrosine kinases are key immunological enzymes that control processes that range from T and B cell development to reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. The full-length Tec kinases have been resistant to crystallization. This lack of structural data and the paucity of in vitro biochemical data for this kinase family leave a void in(More)
Following DNA damage, nuclear p53 induces the expression of PUMA, a BH3-only protein that binds and inhibits the antiapoptotic BCL-2 repertoire, including BCL-xL. PUMA, unique among BH3-only proteins, disrupts the interaction between cytosolic p53 and BCL-xL, allowing p53 to promote apoptosis via direct activation of the BCL-2 effector molecules BAX and(More)
Protein-mediated interactions and enzymatic function provide the foundation upon which cellular signaling cascades control all of the activities of a cell. Post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation or ubiquitiation are well known means for modulating protein activity within the cell. These chemical modifications create new recognition motifs(More)
Interleukin-2 tyrosine kinase (Itk) is a Tec family tyrosine kinase that mediates signaling processes after T cell receptor engagement. Activation of Itk requires recruitment to the membrane via its pleckstrin homology domain, phosphorylation of Itk by the Src kinase, Lck, and binding of Itk to the SLP-76/LAT adapter complex. After activation, Itk(More)
The Tec family tyrosine kinase (Itk), is a key component of the TCR signaling pathway. Biochemical studies have shown that Itk activation requires recruitment of Itk to the membrane via its pleckstrin homology domain, phosphorylation of Itk by the Src kinase, Lck, and binding of Itk to the SLP-76/LAT adapter complex. However, the regulation of Itk enzymatic(More)
ITK-SH3-mediated interactions, both with exogenous ligands and via intermolecular self-association with ITK-SH2, have been shown to be important for regulation of ITK activity. The biological significance of these competing SH3 interactions is not completely understood. A mutant of ITK where substitution of the SH3 domain with that of the related kinase BTK(More)
BACKGROUND Clostridium acetobutylicum is a model organism for both clostridial biology and solvent production. The organism is exposed to its own toxic metabolites butyrate and butanol, which trigger an adaptive stress response. Integrative analysis of proteomic and RNAseq data may provide novel insights into post-transcriptional regulation. RESULTS The(More)
Spatial features of rain frequency change and pollution and associated aerosols, Atmos. Can climate sensitivity be estimated from short-term relationships of top-of-atmosphere net radiation and surface temperature? Spatial features of rain frequency change induced by pollution and associated aerosols, Atmos. Detailed cloud resolving model simulations of the(More)
While the gene for p53 is mutated in many human cancers causing loss of function, many others maintain a wild-type gene but exhibit reduced p53 tumor suppressor activity through overexpression of the negative regulators, Mdm2 and/or MdmX. For the latter mechanism of loss of function, the activity of endogenous p53 can be restored through inhibition of Mdm2(More)