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Lactuca indica (Compositae) is an edible wild vegetable, used as a folk medicine in anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and other medications in Asia. This is the first scientific evaluation of the chemopreventive therapeutic properties of L. indica using five antioxidation assay systems. An extract from L. indica was found to possess significant free radical(More)
Crassocephalum rabens (Asteraceae) is a popular anti-inflammatory folk medicine and food supplement. We investigated the cancer chemopreventive bioactivity of C. rabens phytocompounds in vitro and in vivo using cell- and gene-based bioassays and a mouse B16 melanoma model. The bioactive glyceroglycolipid(More)
BACKGROUND Echinacea spp. extracts and the derived phytocompounds have been shown to induce specific immune cell activities and are popularly used as food supplements or nutraceuticals for immuno-modulatory functions. Dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent antigen presenting cells, play an important role in both innate and adaptive immunities. In this(More)
Bidens pilosa is used as an ethnical medicine for bacterial infection or immune modulation in Asia, America and Africa. Here, we employed an IFN-␥ promoter-driven luciferase reporter construct and T cells to characterize immunomodulatory compounds from this plant based on a bioactivity-guided isolation principle. We found that PHA, a positive control,(More)
Accumulation of oxidized nucleic acids causes genomic instability leading to senescence, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. Phytoagents are known to reduce the risk of cancer development; whether such effects are through regulating the extent of nucleic acid oxidation remains unclear. Here, we outlined the role of reactive oxygen species in nucleic acid(More)
Specific cytokines have been tested clinically for immunotherapy of cancers; however, cytotoxicity has often impaired their usefulness. Consequently, alternative approaches are increasingly desirable. Dioscorea spp. tuber is a widely used traditional Chinese medicinal herb claimed to confer immunostimulatory activity. In this study, we evaluated Dioscorea(More)
Glycosyl hydrolase family 16 (GHF16) truncated Fibrobacter succinogenes (TFs) and GHF17 barley 1,3-1,4-beta-D-glucanases (beta-glucanases) possess different structural folds, beta-jellyroll and (beta/alpha)8, although they both catalyze the specific hydrolysis of beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds adjacent to beta-1,3 linkages in mixed beta-1,3 and beta-1,4(More)
Breast cancer is a life-threatening disease among women worldwide with annual rates of reported incidence and death increasing alarmingly. Chemotherapy is a recommended and effective treatment option for breast cancer; however, the narrow therapeutic indices and varied side effects of currently approved drugs present major hurdles in increasing its(More)
Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic(More)
Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer and an increasingly common disease worldwide. It remains one of the most treatment-refractory malignancies. The current treatment options for patients with metastatic melanoma are limited and in most cases non-curative. This review focuses on conventional chemotherapeutic drugs for melanoma(More)