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Proteins that bind to the cytoplasmic tails of AMPA receptors control receptor trafficking and thus the strength of postsynaptic responses. Here we show that AP2, a clathrin adaptor complex important for endocytosis, associates with a region of GluR2 that overlaps the NSF binding site. Peptides used previously to interfere with NSF binding also antagonize(More)
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediate ischemic brain damage but also mediate essential neuronal excitation. To treat stroke without blocking NMDARs, we transduced neurons with peptides that disrupted the interaction of NMDARs with the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95. This procedure dissociated NMDARs from downstream neurotoxic signaling(More)
Redistribution of postsynaptic AMPA- (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid-) subtype glutamate receptors may regulate synaptic strength at glutamatergic synapses, but the mediation of the redistribution is poorly understood. We show that AMPA receptors underwent clathrin-dependent endocytosis, which was accelerated by insulin in a GluR2(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) has been implicated in major neurological disorders, but its role in normal neuronal function is largely unknown. Here we show that GSK3beta mediates an interaction between two major forms of synaptic plasticity in the brain, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) and NMDA(More)
The alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) subtype of glutamate receptors is subject to functionally distinct constitutive and regulated clathrin-dependent endocytosis, contributing to various forms of synaptic plasticity. In HEK293 cells transiently expressing GluR1 or GluR2 mutants containing domain deletions or point mutations in(More)
Well-documented experimental evidence from both in vitro and in vivo models of stroke strongly supports the critical involvement of NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity in neuronal damage after stroke. Despite this, the results of clinical trials testing NMDA receptor antagonists as neuroprotectants after stroke and brain trauma have been discouraging.(More)
Akt (also known as PKB), a serine/threonine kinase involved in diverse signal-transduction pathways, is highly expressed in the brain. Akt is known to have a strong antiapoptotic action and thereby to be critically involved in neuronal survival, but its potential role in the dynamic modulation of synaptic transmission is unknown. Here we report that Akt(More)
Drug-dependent neural plasticity related to drug addiction and schizophrenia can be modeled in animals as behavioral sensitization, which is induced by repeated noncontingent or self-administration of many drugs of abuse. Molecular mechanisms that are critical for behavioral sensitization have yet to be specified. Long-term depression (LTD) of(More)
Hippocampal CA1 homosynaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) is expressed specifically at activated synapses. Increased insertion of postsynaptic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid receptors (AMPARs) appears to be crucial for CA1 LTP. However, the mechanism underlying AMPAR insertion during LTP remains largely unknown. We now report that(More)
Although many genes that predispose for epilepsy in humans have been determined, those that underlie the classical syndromes of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) have yet to be identified. We report that an Ala322Asp mutation in GABRA1, encoding the alpha1 subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subtype A (GABA(A)), is found in affected(More)