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Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are a unique class of G protein-coupled receptors that play critical roles in thrombosis, inflammation, and vascular biology. PAR1 is proposed to be involved in the invasive and metastatic processes of various cancers. However, the protease responsible for activating the proinvasive functions of PAR1 remains to be(More)
Sepsis is a deadly disease characterized by considerable derangement of the proinflammatory, anti-inflammatory and coagulation responses. Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), an important regulator of endothelial barrier function and blood coagulation, has been proposed to be involved in the lethal sequelae of sepsis, but it is unknown whether activation(More)
Transmembrane signaling through G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) controls a diverse array of cellular processes including metabolism, growth, motility, adhesion, neuronal signaling and blood coagulation. The numerous GPCRs and their key roles in both normal physiology and disease have made them the target for more than 50% of all prescribed drugs. GPCR(More)
Classical ligands bind to the extracellular surface of their cognate receptors and activate signaling pathways without crossing the plasma membrane barrier. We selectively targeted the intracellular receptor-G protein interface by using cell-penetrating membrane-tethered peptides. Attachment of a palmitate group to peptides derived from the third(More)
Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) play important roles in normal and pathological remodeling processes including atherothrombotic disease, inflammation, angiogenesis, and cancer. MMPs have been viewed as matrix-degrading enzymes, but recent studies have shown that they possess direct signaling capabilities. Platelets harbor several MMPs that modulate(More)
Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2), a cell surface receptor for trypsin-like proteases, plays a key role in a number of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases of the joints, lungs, brain, gastrointestinal tract, and vascular systems. Despite considerable effort by the pharmaceutical industry, PAR2 has proven recalcitrant to targeting by small molecule(More)
Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is not expressed in normal breast epithelia but is up-regulated in invasive breast carcinomas. In the present study, we found that matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1) robustly activates the PAR1-Akt survival pathway in breast carcinoma cells. This process is blocked by a cell-penetrating(More)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) are a superfamily of receptors that are vital in a wide array of physiological processes. Modulation of GPCR signaling has been an intensive area of therapeutic study, mainly due to the diverse pathophysiological significance of GPCRs. Pepducins are cell-penetrating lipidated peptides designed to target the intracellular(More)
Thrombin activates platelets in an ordered sequence of events that includes shape change, increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+), activation of the alphaIIbbeta3 integrin, granule secretion, aggregation, and formation of a stable hemostatic plug. Activation of this process has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, stroke, and thrombosis.(More)
BACKGROUND Thrombin is the most potent agonist of platelets and plays a critical role in the development of arterial thrombosis. Human platelets express dual thrombin receptors, protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4; however, there are no therapeutic strategies that effectively target both receptors. METHODS AND RESULTS Platelet aggregation studies(More)