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This study assessed metabolic functioning of regional brain areas to address whether there is a neurometabolic profile reflecting the underlying neuropathology in individuals with autism spectrum disorders, and if varied profiles correlate with the clinical subtypes. Thirteen children (7-16 years) with autism spectrum disorders and 8 typically developing(More)
Autism is associated with epilepsy in early childhood, with evidence suggesting that individuals with both autism and more severe cognitive impairment are at higher risk. However, the incidence of an abnormal electroencephalogram and/or epilepsy in the full range of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) is not well defined. This naturalistic study(More)
AIM Essential fatty acids (EFAs), also known as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, have been claimed to have beneficial effects as a treatment for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Animal experiments have provided information about the role of EFA in the brain, and several mechanisms of EFA activity are well known. The current review provides(More)
Increased paternal age has been associated with an increased risk for autism spectrum disorders. The present study compared the paternal age distribution in autism spectrum disorders children with that of the general population and among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Study participants were drawn from the records of children(More)
Fragile X syndrome is caused by CGG trinucleotide repeat expansion within the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene, when repeat number exceeds 200. The typical psychiatric profile of fragile X syndrome patients includes cognitive and behavioral deficits, psychiatric comorbidity, and autistic characteristics. Specific psychiatric features have not yet been(More)
AIM To evaluate the association between cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) phenotypes in paediatric patients with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) treated with risperidone, adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and drug efficacy. METHOD An observational cohort study of 40 children (34 males, six females; median age 7y range 3-18y) with autistic disorder, pervasive(More)
Nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) is an autosomal recessive disorder of glycine metabolism. Defective glycine cleavage causes elevated concentrations of glycine in plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. A longitudinal study using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-voxel 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was performed on an infant with the(More)
In the initial assessment of children with new-onset seizures, the suggestion that electroencephalography (EEG) should be standard and that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be optional has been questioned. The purposes of this children (four boys) with vertically transmitted stable HIV infection had a neurologic examination, neuropsychologic testing,(More)
Numerous studies have attempted to identify early physiological abnormalities in infants and toddlers who later develop autism spectrum disorder (ASD). One potential measure of early neurophysiology is the auditory brainstem response (ABR), which has been reported to exhibit prolonged latencies in children with ASD. We examined whether prolonged ABR(More)
A clinical and radiologic diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis was made in two children: a 6-month-old female who presented with focal seizures and thalamic and cerebral white matter lesions, and a 4.5-year-old male who presented with tremor and dystonia and had bilateral basal ganglia lesions, without evidence of active brain infection. Serial(More)