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The SPREAD Programme investigated prospectively the time trend from September 2002 through December 2005 of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) among 2793 patients in 20 European countries and in Israel with newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. The overall prevalence of TDR was 8.4% (225 of 2687 patients; 95% confidence(More)
BACKGROUND Studies have suggested that HIV-1 may develop thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) by one of two distinct pathways - the TAM1 pathway (including mutations 41L, 210W and 215Y) or the TAM2 pathway (including mutations 67N, 70R and 219E/Q) - under the pressure of a not fully suppressive thymidine-analogue-containing regimen. METHODS Frozen plasma(More)
Mutations within cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes impair T cell recognition, but escape mutations arising in flanking regions that alter antigen processing have not been defined in natural human infections. In human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B57+ HIV-infected persons, immune selection pressure leads to a mutation from alanine to(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized antigen-presenting cells. However, DCs exposed to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are also able to transmit a vigorous cytopathic infection to CD4(+) T cells, a process that has been frequently related to the ability of DC-SIGN to bind HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. The maturation of DCs can increase the(More)
BACKGROUND HIV-1-infected patients vary considerably by their response to antiretroviral treatment, drug concentrations in plasma, toxic events, and rate of immune recovery. This variability could have a genetic basis. We did a pharmacogenetics study to analyse the association between response to antiretroviral treatment and allelic variants of several(More)
The interferon (IFN)-gamma component of the immune response plays an essential role in combating infectious and non-infectious diseases. Induction of IFN-gamma secretion by human T and natural killer (NK) cells through synergistic costimulation with interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 in the adaptive immune responses against pathogens is well established, but(More)
In healthy blood donors, serological positivity for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is associated with an increased proportion of NK cells bearing the CD94/NKG2C NK cell receptor (NKR). The expression of the activating CD94/NKG2C NKR and of the inhibitory CD94/NKG2A NKR was studied in a cohort of 45 aviremic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-positive(More)
BACKGROUND Infection with drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can impair the response to combination therapy. Widespread transmission of drug-resistant variants has the disturbing potential of limiting future therapy options and affecting the efficacy of postexposure prophylaxis. METHODS We determined the baseline rate of drug(More)
During inflammation, interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 are produced by macrophages and other cell types such as neutrophils (IL-12), keratinocytes and damaged endothelial cells (IL-18). To explore the role of IL-12 and IL-18 in inflammatory innate immune responses we investigated their impact on human peripheral blood monocytes and mature bronchoalveolar lavage(More)
Seventy-seven subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus were randomized to switch from protease inhibitor (PI) therapy to nevirapine therapy (group A; n=26) or to efavirenz therapy (group B; n=25) or to continue PI therapy (group C; n=26). At month 12, viral suppression had been maintained in 96% of patients in group A, 92% of patients in group B,(More)