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Aflatoxins (AFs) are potent carcinogenic compounds produced by several Aspergillus species, which pose serious threats to human health. As sugar is a preferred carbohydrate source for AF production, we examined the possibility of using sugar analogs to inhibit AF biosynthesis. We showed that although D-glucal cannot be utilized by A. flavus as the sole(More)
Diabetic nephropathy is a devastating disease that affects a growing number of diabetic patients. A complete cure is very hard to achieve once the disease has been diagnosed, therefore the diagnosis of early stages in diabetic nephropathy has become a hot area. Numbers of molecules have been proposed to be potential biomarkers for this purpose. However,(More)
Callose plays an important role in pollen development in flowering plants. In rice, 10 genes encoding putative callose synthases have been identified; however, none of them has been functionally characterized. In this study, a rice Glucan Synthase-Like 5 (GSL5) knock-out mutant was isolated that exhibited a severe reduction in fertility. Pollen viability(More)
Folates, termed from tetrahydrofolate (THF) and its derivatives, function as coenzymes in one-carbon transfer reactions and play a central role in synthesis of nucleotides and amino acids. Dysfunction of cellular folate metabolism leads to serious defects in plant development; however, the molecular mechanisms of folate-mediated cellular modifications and(More)
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