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Skeletal changes accompanying aging are associated with both increased risk of fractures and impaired fracture healing, which, in turn, is due to compromised bone regeneration potential. These changes are associated with increased serum levels of selected proinflammatory cytokines, e.g., tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). We have used a unique model(More)
The effects of type 1 diabetes on de novo bone formation during tibial distraction osteogenesis (DO) and on intact trabecular and cortical bone were studied using nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice and comparably aged nondiabetic NOD mice. Diabetic mice received treatment with insulin, vehicle, or no treatment during a 14-day DO procedure. Distracted tibiae were(More)
UNLABELLED DO was used in an aged mouse model to determine if systemically and/or locally administered rhIGF-I improved osteoblastogenesis and new bone formation. Local and systemic rhIGF-I treatment increased new bone formation. However, only systemic delivery produced measurable concentrations of rhIGF-I in the circulation. INTRODUCTION Human and rodent(More)
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated with a number of disorders of skeletal health, conditions that rely, in part, on dynamic bone formation. A mouse model of distraction osteogenesis was used to study the consequences of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and insulin treatment on bone formation and osteoblastogenesis. In diabetic mice compared with control(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is an inflammatory cytokine that modulates osteoblastogenesis. In addition, the demonstrated inhibitory effects of chronic ethanol exposure on direct bone formation in rats are hypothetically mediated by TNF-alpha signaling. The effects in mice are unreported. Therefore, we hypothesized that in mice (1) administration(More)
Excessive alcohol consumption has been reported to interfere with human bone homeostasis and repair in multiple ways. Previous studies have demonstrated that chronic ethanol exposure in the rat via an intragastric dietary delivery system inhibits direct bone formation during distraction osteogenesis (DO, limb lengthening). The opportunity to extend the rat(More)
Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activators, and insulin sensitizers represent drugs used to treat hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a twofold increase in fracture risk, and TZDs use increases this risk by an additional twofold. In this study, we analyzed the(More)
BACKGROUND There is evidence to suggest that impairment in bone formation and/or turnover is associated with the metabolic abnormalities characteristic of type-2 diabetes mellitus. However, bone regeneration/repair in type-2 diabetes has not been modeled. Using Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats (a model of type-2 diabetes) for tibial distraction osteogenesis(More)
Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a process which induces direct new bone formation as a result of mechanical distraction. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is a cytokine that can modulate osteoblastogenesis. The direct effects of TNF on direct bone formation in rodents are hypothetically mediated through TNF receptor 1 and/or 2 (TNFR1/2) signaling. We(More)
OBJECTIVE Using a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced mouse model of type 1 diabetes (T1D), we have previously demonstrated that long-term diabetes inhibits regenerative bone formation during tibial distraction osteogenesis (DO) and perturbs skeletal integrity by decreasing cortical thickness, bone mineral density and bone's resistance to fracture. Because(More)