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Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a leading cause of infant diarrhoea. EPEC mediates several effects on host epithelial cells, including activation of signal-transduction pathways, cytoskeletal rearrangement along with pedestal and attaching/effacing lesion formation. It has been previously shown that the EPEC eaeB (espB) gene encodes a secreted(More)
The mechanisms by which bacteria resist cell-mediated immune responses to cause chronic infections are largely unknown. We report the identification of a large gene present in enteropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (EPEC) that encodes a toxin that specifically inhibits lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, and gamma interferon(More)
The glial glutamate transporter EAAT2 (excitatory amino acid transporter 2) is the major mediator of glutamate clearance that terminates glutamate-mediated neurotransmission. Loss of EAAT2 and associated glutamate uptake function has been reported in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously reported that EAAT2 is associated with(More)
Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Its activity is carefully modulated in the synaptic cleft by glutamate transporters. The glial glutamate transporter EAAT2 is the main mediator of glutamate clearance. Reduced EAAT2 function could lead to accumulation of extracellular glutamate, resulting in a form of cell(More)
The glial glutamate transporter EAAT2 is primarily responsible for clearance of glutamate from the synaptic cleft and loss of EAAT2 has been previously reported in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease. The loss of functional EAAT2 could lead to the accumulation of extracellular glutamate, resulting in cell death known as(More)
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains are able to signal host cells, cause dramatic cytoskeletal rearrangements, and adhere intimately to the cell surface in a process known as the attaching and effacing effect. A pathogenicity island of 35 kb known as the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) is necessary and sufficient for this effect. The LEE encodes(More)
Abnormal splicing of astroglial glutamate transporter EAAT2 mRNA has been suggested to account for the loss of EAAT2 protein in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have identified several clones of human U251 glioma cells which express varying amounts of aberrantly spliced EAAT2 mRNA; these clones do not express any(More)
Glutamate is an important amino acid implicated in energy metabolism, protein biosynthesis and neurotransmission. The Na(+)-dependent high-affinity excitatory amino acid transporter EAAT3 (EAAC1) facilitates glutamate uptake into most cells. Recently, a novel rat EAAT3-interacting protein called GTRAP3-18 has been identified by a yeast two-hybrid screening.(More)
The locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) is necessary for enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to cause characteristic attaching and effacing lesions in host cells. To determine whether sequences at the extreme right end of the LEE downstream of the espB gene are required for attaching and effacing, we constructed a mutant with an omega-interposon insertion(More)