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Human intestinal epithelial cell monolayers (Caco-2) subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation release soluble factors into the apical medium that activate the virulence of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to express the potent barrier-dysregulating protein PA-I lectin/adhesin. In this study, we defined the role of hypoxia-inducible factor(More)
Severe and prolonged states of catabolic stress have been shown to have profound effects on the intestinal tract microflora and intestinal function. Gut-derived sepsis is a term used to describe a state of systemic inflammation with organ dysfunction after severe catabolic stress hypothesized to be initiated and perpetuated by the intestinal tract(More)
It is generally reasoned that lethal infections caused by opportunistic pathogens develop permissively by invading a host that is both physiologically stressed and immunologically compromised. However, an alternative hypothesis might be that opportunistic pathogens actively sense alterations in host immune function and respond by enhancing their virulence(More)
Although the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of the tight junction protein occludin is heavily phosphorylated, the functional impact of most individual sites is undefined. Here, we show that inhibition of CK2-mediated occludin S408 phosphorylation elevates transepithelial resistance by reducing paracellular cation flux. This regulation requires occludin,(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS During stress, erosion of protective intestinal mucus occurs in association with adherence to and disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier by invading opportunistic microbial pathogens. The aims of this study were to test the ability of a high-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol compound, polyethylene glycol 15-20, to protect the(More)
OBJECTIVE We have previously demonstrated that P. aeruginosa can have profound effects on the intestinal epithelial barrier via one of its virulence factors, the PA-I lectin/adhesin. The aims of the present study were to further characterize the interaction of P. aeruginosa and the intestinal epithelium using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. METHODS(More)
In vitro and in vivo studies implicate occludin in the regulation of paracellular macromolecular flux at steady state and in response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF). To define the roles of occludin in these processes, we established intestinal epithelia with stable occludin knockdown. Knockdown monolayers had markedly enhanced tight junction permeability to(More)
Acidified feeding formulas have been proposed as a method of controlling gastrointestinal colonization and nosocomial infection in critically ill patients. We examined possible mechanisms by which chronic acid water feeding might protect the host against lethal gut derived sepsis by assessing its effect on both local intestinal epithelial barrier function(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Most literature that examines gut barrier function focuses on alterations in bacterial flora, changes in mucosal epithelium, or the integrity of the mucosal defenses. This review examines new concepts on the interaction between bacteria and the host, the complex relationships that serve to benefit both in times of health, and the(More)
BACKGROUND We have shown previously that the PA-I lectin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa plays a key role in gut-derived sepsis during surgical stress. The aims of this study were to determine if the intestinal tract lumen of a stressed host contained soluble factors that could induce the expression of PA-I. METHODS Mice were subjected to either 30% surgical(More)
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