Lichen Zhao

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Extrapolating the von Neuman’s random-pulse machine concept, the paper discusses the multibit random-data representation and shows how it can be used for the modular design of robust instrumentation for real-time statistical parameter estimation and especially of hardware neural networks.
The charge-carrier balance strategy by interface engineering is employed to optimize the charge-carrier transport in inverted planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. N,N-Dimethylformamide-treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) and poly(methyl methacrylate)-modified PCBM are utilized as the hole and electron selective contacts,(More)
The highest efficiencies reported for perovskite solar cells so far have been obtained mainly with methylammonium and formamidinium mixed cations. Currently, high-quality mixed-cation perovskite thin films are normally made by use of antisolvent protocols. However, the widely used "antisolvent"-assisted fabrication route suffers from challenges such as poor(More)
Hybrid lead halide perovskites have emerged as high-performance photovoltaic materials with their extraordinary optoelectronic properties. In particular, the remarkable device efficiency is strongly influenced by the perovskite crystallinity and the film morphology. Here, we investigate the perovskites crystallisation kinetics and growth mechanism in real(More)
In many optoelectronic applications, patterning is required for functional and/or aesthetic purposes. However, established photolithographic technique cannot be applied directly to the hybrid perovskites, which are considered as promising candidates for optoelectronic applications. In this work, a wettability-assisted photolithography (WAP) process, which(More)
The formation of in situ AlN-TiN-TiB2/Al composite inoculants, which contain multi-phase refiner particles including AlN, TiN, TiB2, Al3Ti, and α-Al, was investigated using nitrogen gas injection. The effects of the main preparation parameters such as nitriding temperature, nitriding time, Ti content in melts, on the microstructure and grain refinement of(More)
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