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UNLABELLED Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), the principal causative agent of recurrent genital herpes, is a highly prevalent viral infection worldwide. Limited information is available on the amount of genomic DNA variation between HSV-2 strains because only two genomes have been determined, the HG52 laboratory strain and the newly sequenced SD90e(More)
CD4 T cells are required for the maintenance and recall of antiviral CD8 T cells and for antibody responses. Little is known concerning the overall architecture of the CD4 response to complex microbial pathogens. In a whole-proteome approach, 180 predicted open reading frames (ORFs) in the vaccinia virus genome were expressed and tested using responder(More)
PURPOSE Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is prevalent in the general population, integrates into most Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC), and encodes oncoproteins required for MCC tumor growth. We sought to characterize T-cell responses directed against viral proteins that drive this cancer as a step toward immunotherapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Intracellular(More)
Orthopoxviruses have complex proteomes. Infection provokes a brisk CD8 response, which is required in some systems for recovery from primary infection. Little is known concerning the Ags and epitopes recognized by CD8 T cells. We examined the fine specificity of cloned and bulk human vaccinia-specific CD8 CTL by expressing polypeptide fragments from a(More)
The goal of this study was to compare changes in gene expression induced by exposure to different carcinogens and to anchor these changes to the induced levels of toxicity and mutagenesis. The human TK6 lymphoblastoid cell line was used as an in vitro model system, and reactive metabolites of two human carcinogens, benzo[a]pyrene and 4-aminobiphenyl, were(More)
The Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily includes HSV types 1 and 2 and the sequence-divergent pathogen varicella zoster virus (VZV). T cells, controlled by TCR and HLA molecules that tolerate limited epitope amino acid variation, might cross-react between these microbes. We show that memory PBMC expansion with either HSV or VZV enriches for CD4 T cell lines that(More)
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) not only causes painful recurrent oral-labial infections, it can also cause permanent brain damage and blindness. There is currently no HSV-1 vaccine. An effective vaccine must stimulate coordinated T cell responses, but the large size of the genome and the low frequency of HSV-1-specific T cells have hampered the search(More)
Vaccination with replication-competent vaccinia protects against heterologous orthopoxvirus challenge. CD4 T cells have essential roles helping functionally important Ab and CD8 antiviral responses, and contribute to the durability of vaccinia-specific memory. Little is known about the specificity, diversity, or dominance hierarchy of orthopoxvirus-specific(More)
The CD4 T-cell response to vaccinia promotes antibody and long-term CD8 responses. HLA class II molecules present microbial epitopes to CD4 T-cells. In humans, at least 3 loci encode cell-surface peptide-binding HLA class II heterodimers. Using intracellular cytokine cytometry (ICC) assays, we determined that HLA DR had the strongest contribution to(More)
Little is known concerning immunodominance within the CD4 T-cell response to viral infections and its persistence into long-term memory. We tested CD4 T-cell reactivity against each viral protein in persons immunized with vaccinia virus (VV), either recently or more than 40 years ago, as a model self-limited viral infection. Similar tests were done with(More)