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The tuberous root of radish is an important vegetable, but insufficient transcriptomic and genomic data are currently available to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying tuberous root formation and development. High-throughput transcriptomic sequencing is essential to generate a large transcript sequence data set for gene discovery and molecular(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 21–24 nucleotide non-coding RNAs that down-regulate gene expression by cleaving or inhibiting the translation of target gene transcripts. miRNAs have been extensively analyzed in a few model plant species such as Arabidopsis, rice and Populus, and partially investigated in other non-model plant species. However, only a few(More)
Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is a chronic infection in which B-cell activation, plasma cell infiltration, and enhanced Ig production in infected tissue are prominent feature. However, little is known about how B cells and plasma cells invade and persist in target organs. To assess this issue, we developed real-time PCR measurements of IgG and CXCL13(More)
BACKGROUND Immunoglobulin production within the central nervous system (CNS) is a prominent feature of multiple sclerosis and its animal model induced by infection with Theiler's meningoencephalitis virus, as well as of other inflammatory and infectious neurological diseases. However, relatively little is known about the plasma cells (PCs) responsible for(More)
Although the central nervous system (CNS) is thought to be immunoprivileged, under special circumstances it can produce antibody. Antibody production within the CNS, called intrathecal antibody production (ITAbP), is a prominent feature of neurological infections and inflammatory diseases, and is thought to possibly contribute to disease in multiple(More)
B cell depletion (BCD) is being considered as a treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS), but there are many uncertainties surrounding the use of this therapy, such as its potential effect in individuals with concurrent viral infections. We sought to discover what effect BCD, induced by an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, would have on Theiler's murine(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that several N-substituted 4′, 4″-diF-benztropine (BZT) analogs with high dopamine transporter affinity selectively decreased cocaine self-administration without affecting food-maintained behavior in rats. The present study examined if the decreases in cocaine self-administration are due to competition from excess(More)
We have reported that the P-gp substrate digoxin required basolateral and apical uptake transport in excess of that allowed by digoxin passive permeability (as measured in the presence of GF120918) to achieve the observed efflux kinetics across MDCK-MDR1-NKI (The Netherlands Cancer Institute) confluent cell monolayers. That is, GF120918 inhibitable uptake(More)
Intrathecal antibody (ITAb) production is a common feature of neurological diseases, yet very little is known about its mechanisms. Because ITAb is prominent in human Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB), in the present study we established a mouse model of LNB to study ITAb production. We injected different strains of Borrelia burgdorferi into a variety of mouse(More)
FTY720 (fingolimod) has demonstrated efficacy in multiple sclerosis (MS). We evaluated the effects of FTY720 on progressive disability, viral load, and antibody responses in mice infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyocarditis virus (TMEV). FTY720 and phosphorylated FTY720 (FTY720-P) were detected in the brain after intraperitoneal injection of the(More)