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The tuberous root of radish is an important vegetable, but insufficient transcriptomic and genomic data are currently available to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying tuberous root formation and development. High-throughput transcriptomic sequencing is essential to generate a large transcript sequence data set for gene discovery and molecular(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 21–24 nucleotide non-coding RNAs that down-regulate gene expression by cleaving or inhibiting the translation of target gene transcripts. miRNAs have been extensively analyzed in a few model plant species such as Arabidopsis, rice and Populus, and partially investigated in other non-model plant species. However, only a few(More)
In the 2012 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance on drug-drug interactions (DDIs), a new molecular entity that inhibits P-glycoprotein (P-gp) may need a clinical DDI study with a P-gp substrate such as digoxin when the maximum concentration of inhibitor at steady state divided by IC₅₀ ([I₁]/IC₅₀) is ≥0.1 or concentration of inhibitor based on(More)
Although the central nervous system (CNS) is thought to be immunoprivileged, under special circumstances it can produce antibody. Antibody production within the CNS, called intrathecal antibody production (ITAbP), is a prominent feature of neurological infections and inflammatory diseases, and is thought to possibly contribute to disease in multiple(More)
Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is a chronic infection in which B-cell activation, plasma cell infiltration, and enhanced Ig production in infected tissue are prominent feature. However, little is known about how B cells and plasma cells invade and persist in target organs. To assess this issue, we developed real-time PCR measurements of IgG and CXCL13(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that several N-substituted 4′, 4″-diF-benztropine (BZT) analogs with high dopamine transporter affinity selectively decreased cocaine self-administration without affecting food-maintained behavior in rats. The present study examined if the decreases in cocaine self-administration are due to competition from excess(More)
A P-glycoprotein (P-gp) IC₅₀ working group was established with 23 participating pharmaceutical and contract research laboratories and one academic institution to assess interlaboratory variability in P-gp IC₅₀ determinations. Each laboratory followed its in-house protocol to determine in vitro IC₅₀ values for 16 inhibitors using four different test(More)
Based on the characteristic of a type of commercial vehicle, a multi-body model of its full suspension system with twenty Degree of Freedom (DOF) was established in MSC.ADAMS. After evaluating relative condition parameters such as stiffness and damping index on the simulation model, the effects of outside exciting on the suspension system have been worked(More)
BACKGROUND Immunoglobulin production within the central nervous system (CNS) is a prominent feature of multiple sclerosis and its animal model induced by infection with Theiler's meningoencephalitis virus, as well as of other inflammatory and infectious neurological diseases. However, relatively little is known about the plasma cells (PCs) responsible for(More)
B cell depletion (BCD) is being considered as a treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS), but there are many uncertainties surrounding the use of this therapy, such as its potential effect in individuals with concurrent viral infections. We sought to discover what effect BCD, induced by an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, would have on Theiler's murine(More)