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By impairing both function and survival, the severe reduction in oxygen availability associated with high-altitude environments is likely to act as an agent of natural selection. We used genomic and candidate gene approaches to search for evidence of such genetic selection. First, a genome-wide allelic differentiation scan (GWADS) comparing indigenous(More)
Chromosomal inversion is an important type of genomic variations involved in both evolution and disease pathogenesis. Here, we describe the refined genetic structure of a 3.8-Mb inversion polymorphism at chromosome 8p23. Using HapMap data of 1,073 SNPs generated from 209 unrelated samples from CEPH-Utah residents with ancestry from northern and western(More)
Positive selection is a driving force that has shaped the modern human. Recent developments in high throughput technologies and corresponding statistics tools have made it possible to conduct whole genome surveys at a population scale, and a variety of measurements, such as heterozygosity (HET), F ST , and Tajima's D, have been applied to multiple datasets(More)
Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS) is a severe neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive motor neuron death. Although the etiology of sALS remains unknown, genetic variants are thought to predispose individuals to the disease. Several recent genome-wide association studies have identified a number of loci that increase sALS(More)
Transmission distortion (TD) is a significant departure from Mendelian predictions of genes or chromosomes to offspring. While many biological processes have been implicated, there is still much to be understood about TD in humans. Here we present our findings from a genome-wide scan for evidence of TD using haplotype data of 60 trio families from the(More)
Multiple lines of evidence implicate that aberrant activation of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is involved in a variety of human cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying how cancer cells respond to Hh inhibition remain to be elucidated. In this study, we found that blockade of Hh signaling suppresses cell proliferation in human cancer cells.(More)
Neuropathic pain is the most difficult type of pain to cure. The P2X(2/3) receptors play a crucial role in facilitating the transmission of pain at neuropathic pain states. Emodin is a natural anthraquinone in rhubarb. The present research investigated the effects of emodin on the pain transmission in neuropathic pain states that was mediated by P2X(2/3)(More)
Metastasis is the major cause of cancer-related death in breast cancer patients, which is controlled by specific sets of genes. Targeting these genes may provide a means to delay cancer progression and allow local treatment to be more effective. We report for the first time that ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) is the most amplified gene in ARF gene family(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV), because of its error-prone viral polymerase, has a high mutation rate leading to widespread substitutions, deletions, and insertions in the HBV genome. Deletions may significantly change viral biological features complicating the progression of liver diseases. However, the clinical conditions correlating to the accumulation of(More)
It is a challenge to understand the discrete roles of each point mutation in viral evolution, but overlapping genes provide an excellent entrance for the investigation of this complicated process. We obtained 132 sequences from the largest overlapping region in the HBV genome. Based on the genetic divergence between genotypes B and C, we distinguished a set(More)