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BACKGROUND The cytokine network in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex, dynamic system that plays an important role in regulating mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. While several studies have been done to evaluate immunomodulatory profiles in murine IBD, they have been limited to a relatively small number of cytokines that do not take(More)
A method is described for the staining of glomerular basement membranes of aldehyde-fixed, osmicated renal tissue embedded in Epon or Araldite. The procedure presented does not require chemical digestion of the polymerized Epon or Araldite matrix before application of the methenamine-silver technique. There is no divergence from the procedures for fixation(More)
Currently available prognostic tools are inadequate to discern the molecular basis of the heterogenic response in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients treated with the current standard of therapy. The expression and biological function of immune mediators have been shown to be critical in all phases of the immune response to HCV infection and likely(More)
Although the intracellular Cl(-)/H(+) exchanger Clc-5 is expressed in apical intestinal endocytic compartments, its pathophysiological role in the gastrointestinal tract is unknown. In light of recent findings that CLC-5 is downregulated in active ulcerative colitis (UC), we tested the hypothesis that loss of CLC-5 modulates the immune response, thereby(More)
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