Learn More
Mouse models are useful for studying genes involved in behavior, but whether they are relevant to human behavior is unclear. Here, we identified parallel phenotypes in mice and humans resulting from a common single-nucleotide polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, which is involved in anxiety-related behavior. An inbred genetic(More)
There has been a dramatic rise in gene x environment studies of human behavior over the past decade that have moved the field beyond simple nature versus nurture debates. These studies offer promise in accounting for more variability in behavioral and biological phenotypes than studies that focus on genetic or experiential factors alone. They also provide(More)
Recent studies have shown that medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) lesions impair performance on a number of rodent tests of attention. Although this evidence clearly suggests a role for the rat mPFC in attentional functions, it is unclear whether subcortical changes associated with mPFC lesions might also be relevant to the neuropsychological deficits(More)
A role for the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and its dopamine (DA) innervation in fear and fear learning is supported by a large body of evidence, which has challenged the view that the NAcc is solely involved in mediating appetitive processes. Unfortunately, due to conflicting findings in the aversive conditioning literature the role of the NAcc in aversive(More)
The anteriorlateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST AL) and the serotonergic system are believed to modulate behavioral responses to stressful and/or anxiogenic stimuli. However, although the BNST AL receives heavy serotonergic innervation, the functional significance of this input is not known. Data obtained from in vitro whole-cell patch clamp(More)
Activation of neurons in the anterolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST(ALG)) plays an important role in mediating the behavioral response to stressful and anxiogenic stimuli. Application of 5-HT elicits complex postsynaptic responses in BNST(ALG) neurons, which includes (1) membrane hyperpolarization (5-HT(Hyp)), (2) hyperpolarization followed(More)
An increasing body of evidence suggests that the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) is engaged in both incentive reward processes and in adaptive responses to conditioned and unconditioned aversive stimuli. Yet, it has been argued that NAcc activation to aversive stimuli may be a consequence of the rewarding effects of their termination, i.e., relief. To address this(More)
Nucleus accumbens (NAcc) core lesions were performed either before or after Pavlovian aversive conditioning. NAcc core lesions had no effect on discrete-cue or contextual conditioned freezing during acquisition. During retention testing, neither pre- nor posttraining lesions had any effect on conditioned freezing to the discrete cue. However, pretraining(More)
The characterization of adolescence as a time of "storm and stress" remains an open debate. Intense and frequent negative affect during this period has been hypothesized to explain the increased rates of affective disorders, suicide, and accidental death during this time of life. Yet some teens emerge from adolescence with minimal turmoil. We provide a(More)
CONTEXT Recent theories have suggested that the inappropriate activation of limbic motivational systems in response to neutral stimuli may underlie the development of delusions in schizophrenia. OBJECTIVE To investigate the activation of the amygdala, midbrain, and ventral striatum during an aversive pavlovian conditioning task in patients with(More)