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Optimization of cognitive processing may depend on specific and distinct functions of the cortical cholinergic and noradrenergic systems. This investigation dissociates functions of cortical acetylcholine (ACh) and noradrenaline (NA) in arousal and visual attention by simultaneously measuring ACh and NA efflux in the rat prefrontal cortex during sustained(More)
Mouse models are useful for studying genes involved in behavior, but whether they are relevant to human behavior is unclear. Here, we identified parallel phenotypes in mice and humans resulting from a common single-nucleotide polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, which is involved in anxiety-related behavior. An inbred genetic(More)
The anteriorlateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST AL) and the serotonergic system are believed to modulate behavioral responses to stressful and/or anxiogenic stimuli. However, although the BNST AL receives heavy serotonergic innervation, the functional significance of this input is not known. Data obtained from in vitro whole-cell patch clamp(More)
The characterization of adolescence as a time of "storm and stress" remains an open debate. Intense and frequent negative affect during this period has been hypothesized to explain the increased rates of affective disorders, suicide, and accidental death during this time of life. Yet some teens emerge from adolescence with minimal turmoil. We provide a(More)
Recent studies have shown that medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) lesions impair performance on a number of rodent tests of attention. Although this evidence clearly suggests a role for the rat mPFC in attentional functions, it is unclear whether subcortical changes associated with mPFC lesions might also be relevant to the neuropsychological deficits(More)
A key question in the analysis of hippocampal memory relates to how attention modulates the encoding and long-term retrieval of spatial and nonspatial representations in this region. To address this question, we recorded from single cells over a period of 5 days in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus while mice acquired one of two goal-oriented tasks.(More)
Local injections of the neurotoxin SP-saporin into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) are reported to specifically lesion substance P receptor immunoreactive (SPR-IR) interneurons, and to reduce anxiety related behavior. Hence, this technique might provide a means to study how defined interneuron populations regulate neuronal activity in the BLA. However, what(More)
Active and passive avoidance behaviors involve either emitting or omitting a response to avoid potential harm. Both are key components in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, yet the neural circuitry that mediates avoidance is underexplored. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging greater hemodynamic activation of the nucleus accumbens was(More)
Individuals with Asperger's syndrome (AS) often have difficulties with social interactions and conversations. We investigated if these difficulties could be attributable to a deficit in the ability to linguistically converge with an interlocutor, which is posited to be important for successful communication. To that end, participants completed two(More)
A role for the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and its dopamine (DA) innervation in fear and fear learning is supported by a large body of evidence, which has challenged the view that the NAcc is solely involved in mediating appetitive processes. Unfortunately, due to conflicting findings in the aversive conditioning literature the role of the NAcc in aversive(More)