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The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging(More)
The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences. Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement, learning, memory and motivation, and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease. To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions,(More)
Maladaptive impulsivity is a core symptom in various psychiatric disorders. However, there is only limited evidence available on whether different measures of impulsivity represent largely unrelated aspects or a unitary construct. In a cross-species translational study, thirty rats were trained in impulsive choice (delayed reward task) and impulsive action(More)
Treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) normalizes glutamate (Glu) homeostasis and prevents relapse in drug-dependent animals. However, the effect of NAC on brain Glu levels in substance-dependent humans has not yet been investigated. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) was used to investigate Glu changes in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex(More)
Since the sample size of a typical neuroimaging study lacks sufficient statistical power to explore unknown genomic associations with brain phenotypes, several international genetic imaging consortia have been organized in recent years to pool data across sites. The challenges and achievements of these consortia are considered here with the goal of(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with deficits in cognitive control functions. Cognitive control is likely to be mediated through the interaction between intrinsic large-scale brain networks involved in externally oriented executive functioning and internally focused thought processing. Improving the interaction between these functional brain(More)
BACKGROUND Impaired response inhibition is a key feature of patients with alcohol dependence. Improving impulse control is a promising target for the treatment of alcohol dependence. The pharmacologic agent modafinil enhances cognitive control functions in both healthy subjects and in patients with various psychiatric disorders. However, very little is(More)
BACKGROUND A chronic course of major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with profound alterations in brain volumes and emotional and cognitive processing. However, no neurobiological markers have been identified that prospectively predict MDD course trajectories. This study evaluated the prognostic value of different neuroimaging modalities, clinical(More)
This article reviews work published by the ENIGMA Consortium and its Working Groups (http://enigma.ini.usc.edu). It was written collaboratively; P.T. wrote the first draft and all listed authors revised and edited the document for important intellectual content, using Google Docs for parallel editing, and approved it. Some ENIGMA investigators contributed(More)
OBJECTIVE Enhanced reactivity to substance related cues is a central characteristic of addiction and has been associated with increased activity in motivation, attention, and memory related brain circuits and with a higher probability of relapse. Modafinil was promising in the first clinical trials in cocaine dependence, and was able to reduce craving in(More)