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A unique avian-origin A/H7N9 influenza virus has so far caused 134 cases with 44 deaths. Probing the host factors contributing to disease severity, we found that lower levels of plasma inflammatory cytokines on hospital admission correlated with faster recovery in 18 patients with A/H7N9 influenza virus, whereas high concentrations of (in particular) IL-6,(More)
An effective anti-human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) microbicide should exert its action in the absence of causing aberrant activation of topical immunity that will increase the risk of HIV acquisition. In the present study, we demonstrated that the vaginal application of cellulose sulfate (CS) gel induced topical mucosal inflammatory responses; the(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE We conducted epidemiologic investigations and serologic assays on household contacts that were extensively exposed to three influenza A (H7N9) virus infected case-patients before infection-control practices were implemented. STUDY DESIGN Data on the early clinical course of each patient and the exposure history for each patient's(More)
Ex vivo foreskin models have demonstrated that inner foreskin is more susceptible to HIV-1 infection than outer foreskin. In the present study we characterized the compartition of HIV-1 target cells and quantified these cells in the epidermis and dermis of inner and outer foreskins using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Our data showed that the(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether mucosal topical microbicides have any influence on disease progression during subsequent simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. DESIGN A 2-phase study was performed in primate monkeys. The first phase mimicked microbicide efficacy studies; the second phase served to determine the disease progression in a productive(More)
The chemokine MCP-1/CCL2 is produced by a variety of tumors and plays an important role in cancer progression. We and others previously demonstrated that the primary source of MCP-1 in several mouse tumors, including 4T1 breast cancer, M5076 sarcoma, and B16 melanoma, was stromal cells. In the present study, we identified that tumor cells were the primary(More)
Formyl-peptide receptors are a family of 7 transmembrane domain, Gi-protein-coupled receptors that possess multiple functions in many pathophysiologic processes because of their expression in a variety of cell types and their capacity to interact with a variety of structurally diverse, chemotactic ligands. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that(More)
A major obstacle thwarting preclinical development of microbicides is the lack of a validated biomarker of cervicovaginal inflammation. Therefore, the present study aims to identify novel noninvasive soluble markers in a murine model for assessment of microbicide mucosal safety. By performing cytokine antibody array analysis, we identified two adhesion(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) control immune responses and are central to the development of immune memory and tolerance. DCs initiate and orchestrate immune responses in a manner that depends on signals they receive from microbes and cellular environment. Although DCs consist mainly of bone marrow-derived and resident populations, a third tissue-derived population(More)
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/CCL2 plays an important role in the initiation and progression of cancer. We previously reported that in 4T1 murine breast cancer, non-tumor stromal cells, including macrophages, were the major source of MCP-1. In the present study, we analyzed the potential mechanisms by which MCP-1 is upregulated in macrophages(More)