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Voltage-dependent calcium channels (Ca(V)) open in response to changes in membrane potential, but their activity is modulated by Ca(2+) binding to calmodulin (CaM). Structural studies of this family of channels have focused on CaM bound to the IQ motif; however, the minimal differences between structures cannot adequately describe CaM's role in the(More)
A fragment of RyR1 (amino acids 4064-4210) is predicted to fold to at least one lobe of calmodulin and to bind Ca(2+). This fragment of RyR1 (R4064-4210) was subcloned, expressed, refolded, and purified. Consistent with the predicted folding pattern, R4064-4210 was found to bind two molecules of Ca(2+) and undergo a structural change upon binding Ca(2+)(More)
Antibody blockade of the inhibitory CTLA-4 pathway has led to clinical benefit in a subset of patients with metastatic melanoma. Anti-CTLA-4 enhances T cell responses, including production of IFN-γ, which is a critical cytokine for host immune responses. However, the role of IFN-γ signaling in tumor cells in the setting of anti-CTLA-4 therapy remains(More)
PURPOSE MITF/TFE translocation renal cell carcinoma (TRCC) is a rare subtype of kidney cancer. Its incidence and the genome-wide characterization of its genetic origin have not been fully elucidated. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We performed RNA and exome sequencing on an exploratory set of TRCC (n = 7), and validated our findings using The Cancer Genome Atlas(More)
Two fragments of the C-terminal tail of the alpha(1) subunit (CT1, amino acids 1538-1692 and CT2, amino acids 1596-1692) of human cardiac L-type calcium channel (Ca(V)1.2) have been expressed, refolded, and purified. A single Ca(2+)-calmodulin binds to each fragment, and this interaction with Ca(2+)-calmodulin is required for proper folding of the fragment.(More)
Combination therapy with α-CTLA-4 and α-PD-1 has shown significant clinical responses in different types of cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, combining detailed analysis of human tumour samples with preclinical tumour models, we report that concomitant blockade of CTLA-4 and PD-1 improves anti-tumour immune responses and(More)
Purpose: MITF/TFE translocation renal cell carcinoma (TRCC) is a rare subtype of kidney cancer. Its incidence and the genome-wide characterization of its genetic origin have not been fully elucidated. Experimental Design: We performed RNA and exome sequencing on an exploratory set of TRCC (n ¼ 7), and validated our findings using The Cancer Genome Atlas(More)
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