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Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are molecular switches that bind Ca(2+), ATP, and protein substrates, acting as sensor relays and responders that convert Ca(2+) signals, created by developmental processes and environmental stresses, into phosphorylation events. The precise functions of the CDPKs in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) are largely unknown.(More)
Cell division requires proper spindle assembly; a surveillance pathway, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), monitors whether the spindle is normal and correctly attached to kinetochores. The SAC proteins regulate mitotic chromosome segregation by affecting CDC20 (Cell Division Cycle 20) function. However, it is unclear whether CDC20 regulates meiotic(More)
TO THE EDITOR—H7N9 is a novel avian virus recently first reported from Shang-hai in China. Very recently an isolate from Taiwan was also reported [1]. H7N9 is able to infect humans and has caused many fatal cases [2, 3]. Determining the origin and evolution of these disease-causing viruses is important for surveillance and prevention of the influenza(More)
The identification of conserved syntenic regions enables discovery of predicted locations for orthologous and homeologous genes, even when no such gene is present. This capability means that synteny-based methods are far more effective than sequence similarity-based methods in identifying true-negatives, a necessity for studying gene loss and gene(More)
The flower is essential for sexual reproduction of flowering plants and has been extensively studied. However, it is still not clear how many genes are expressed in the flower. Here, we performed RNA-seq analysis as a highly sensitive approach to investigate the Arabidopsis floral transcriptome at three developmental stages. We provide evidence that at(More)
Regulation of the flowering mechanism is influenced by many environmental factors. Dissecting the regulatory processes upstream of the LFY (LEAFY) gene will help us to understand the molecular mechanisms of floral induction. In total, 53 LFY sequences were identified in 37 species. Among the 53 selected LFY promoters and after eliminating the short(More)
Histone modifications, such as methylation and demethylation, play an important role in regulating chromatin structure and gene expression. The JmjC domain-containing proteins, an important family of histone lysine demethylases (KDMs), play a key role in maintaining homeostasis of histone methylation in vivo. In this study, we performed a comprehensive(More)
The problem of two companies of agents with one-step memory playing game is investigated in the context of the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma under the partial imitation rule, where a player can imitate only those moves that he has observed in his games with his opponent. We limit our study to the special case where the players in the two groups enjoy the same(More)
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