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Langerhans cells (LCs) are antigen-presenting cells that reside in the epidermis of the skin and traffic to lymph nodes (LNs). The general role of these cells in skin immune responses is not clear because distinct models of LC depletion resulted in opposite conclusions about their role in contact hypersensitivity (CHS) responses. While comparing these(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved as an autocrine factor in the regulation of the secretory activity of the neuroendocrine pituitary melanotrope cells of Xenopus laevis. We studied the subcellular distribution of BDNF in Xenopus melanotropes using a combination of high-pressure freezing, cryosubstitution and immunoelectron microscopy.(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family, occurs abundantly in the brain, where it exerts a variety of neural functions. We previously demonstrated that BDNF also exists in the endocrine melanotroph cells in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland of the amphibian Xenopus laevis, suggesting that BDNF, in addition to(More)
Five muscles of the rat's lower hindlimb were compared with regard to their histochemical fibre type distribution at seven different proximo-distal levels. The muscles were: extensor digitorum longus (ED), flexor digitorum and hallucis longus (FD), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), peroneus longus (PE) and tibialis anterior (TA). In all the five muscles, the(More)
In adult rats, the sciatic nerve was unilaterally sectioned and reunited above the knee. Following a survival time of 21 weeks, five muscles were removed from both lower hindlimbs after determining their intra-limb positions. In each muscle, cryostat sections from seven equidistant proximo-distal levels were stained for myofibrillar ATPase. Intramuscular(More)
We have raised the hypothesis that in the South African clawed toad Xenopus laevis, urocortin 1 (UCN1), a member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) peptide family, functions not only within the brain as a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator but also as a neurohormone, promoting the release of alpha-melanophore-stimulating hormone (alphaMSH) from the(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is immunocytochemically demonstrated in the magnocellular nucleus and neural lobe of the pituitary gland of the amphibian Xenopus laevis. Immunoelectron microscopy shows BDNF in secretory granules of type A neurohemal axon terminals in the neural lobe of pituitary gland. It is proposed that BDNF released from the(More)
Newly developed concepts and methods for the quantification of fibre type regionalisation were used for comparison between all muscles traversing the ankle of the rat lower hindlimb (n = 12). For each muscle, cross-sections from the proximodistal midlevel were stained for myofibrillar ATPase and classified as type I ('slow') or II ('fast'). For the 11(More)
The topographical distribution of different fibre types in muscles of the lower hindlimb in rabbits and mice was quantitatively determined. The results were compared to those previously obtained, using the same new quantification methods, in homologous muscles of the rat. Type I fibres ('slow') were identified using myofibrillar ATPase histochemistry and(More)
The ability to induce humoral and cellular immunity via antigen delivery through the unbroken skin (epicutaneous immunization, EPI) has immediate relevance for vaccine development. However, it is unclear which adjuvants induce protective memory CD8 T-cell responses by this route, and the molecular and cellular requirements for priming through intact skin(More)