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Mosquitoes are vectors of parasitic and viral diseases of immense importance for public health. The acquisition of the genome sequence of the yellow fever and Dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Aa), has enabled a comparative phylogenomic analysis of the insect immune repertoire: in Aa, the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae (Ag), and the fruit fly Drosophila(More)
Toll receptors are type I transmembrane proteins that play important roles in development and immunity in animals. Comparison of the genomes of mouse and human on one side and of the fruitfly Drosophila and the mosquito Anopheles (two dipteran insects) on the other, revealed that the four species possess a similar number of Toll receptors (approximately(More)
BACKGROUND Anopheles gambiae females are the world's most successful vectors of human malaria. However, a fraction of these mosquitoes is refractory to Plasmodium development. L3-5, a laboratory selected refractory strain, encapsulates transforming ookinetes/early oocysts of a wide variety of Plasmodium species. Previous studies on these mosquitoes showed(More)
We have identified 242 Anopheles gambiae genes from 18 gene families implicated in innate immunity and have detected marked diversification relative to Drosophila melanogaster. Immune-related gene families involved in recognition, signal modulation, and effector systems show a marked deficit of orthologs and excessive gene expansions, possibly reflecting(More)
BACKGROUND Attempts over the last three decades to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of the Anopheles gambiae species complex have been important for developing better strategies to control malaria transmission. METHODOLOGY We used fingerprint genotyping data from 414 field-collected female mosquitoes at 42 microsatellite loci to infer the evolutionary(More)
The identification of stage-specific genes in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum may provide a starting point to identify key elements for the malaria parasite to complete its life cycle. In this study, we address this question through the combined analysis of gene expression data collected from two distinct microarray platforms. Although it is(More)
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