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Mosquitoes are vectors of parasitic and viral diseases of immense importance for public health. The acquisition of the genome sequence of the yellow fever and Dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Aa), has enabled a comparative phylogenomic analysis of the insect immune repertoire: in Aa, the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae (Ag), and the fruit fly Drosophila(More)
We have identified 242 Anopheles gambiae genes from 18 gene families implicated in innate immunity and have detected marked diversification relative to Drosophila melanogaster. Immune-related gene families involved in recognition, signal modulation, and effector systems show a marked deficit of orthologs and excessive gene expansions, possibly reflecting(More)
We show that, in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, expression of Cecropin 1 is regulated by REL2, an NF-kappaB-like transcription factor orthologous to Drosophila Relish. Through alternative splicing, REL2 produces a full-length (REL2-F) and a shorter (REL2-S) protein isoform lacking the inhibitory ankyrin repeats and death domain. RNA interference(More)
Toll receptors are type I transmembrane proteins that play important roles in development and immunity in animals. Comparison of the genomes of mouse and human on one side and of the fruitfly Drosophila and the mosquito Anopheles (two dipteran insects) on the other, revealed that the four species possess a similar number of Toll receptors (approximately(More)
BACKGROUND Anopheles gambiae females are the world's most successful vectors of human malaria. However, a fraction of these mosquitoes is refractory to Plasmodium development. L3-5, a laboratory selected refractory strain, encapsulates transforming ookinetes/early oocysts of a wide variety of Plasmodium species. Previous studies on these mosquitoes showed(More)
Toll-related receptors (TLR) have been found in four animal phyla: Nematoda, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and Chordata. No TLR has been identified thus far in acoelomates. TLR genes play a pivotal role in the innate immunity in both fruit fly and mammals. The prevailing view is that TLR-mediated immunity is ancient. The two pseudocoelomate TLRs, one each from(More)
BACKGROUND Attempts over the last three decades to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of the Anopheles gambiae species complex have been important for developing better strategies to control malaria transmission. METHODOLOGY We used fingerprint genotyping data from 414 field-collected female mosquitoes at 42 microsatellite loci to infer the evolutionary(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a group of evolutionary conserved proteins with diverse biological functions. In Drosophila melanogaster, Toll protein plays an important role in pattern formation in embryogenesis and in antimicrobial immunity in larvae and adults. In insects, Toll and two other related proteins, Tehao and 18-wheeler have been shown to(More)
Of the insects that serve as vectors for parasitic diseases, the genus Anopheles is the most important. Of the approximately 400 species, about twelve serve as vectors for human pathogens. Months have passed since the sequenced genomes of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, and its vector, Anopheles gambiae, were published. Sequences were compared,(More)