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Argonaute (AGO) proteins recruit small RNAs to form the core of RNAi effector complexes. Arabidopsis encodes ten AGO proteins and a large network of small RNAs. How these small RNAs are sorted into specific AGO complexes remains largely unknown. We have cataloged small RNAs resident in four AGO complexes. We found that AGO2 and AGO4 preferentially recruit(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small silencing RNAs with regulatory roles in gene expression. miRNAs interact with Argonaute (AGO) proteins to form effector complexes that cleave target mRNAs or repress translation. Rice (Oryza sativa) encodes four AGO1 homologs (AGO1a, AGO1b, AGO1c, and AGO1d). We used RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down the four AGO1s. The RNAi(More)
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) trigger plant defenses when perceived by surface-localized immune receptors. PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) plays a vital role in the resistance of plants to numerous potential pathogens. MicroRNA (miRNA) biogenesis is known to be important for PTI, but miRNA species involved in this process have not been fully(More)
Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has played a key role in enhancing food production and keeping half of the world's population adequately fed. However, decades of N fertilizer overuse in many parts of the world have contributed to soil, water, and air pollution; reducing excessive N losses and emissions is a central environmental challenge in the 21st(More)
In plants, the known microRNAs (miRNAs) are produced as approximately 21 nucleotide (nt) duplexes from their precursors by Dicer-like 1 (DCL1). They are incorporated into Argonaute 1 (AGO1) protein to regulate target gene expression primarily through mRNA cleavage. We report here the discovery of a class of miRNAs in the model monocot rice (Oryza sativa).(More)
Plasmids are mobile genetic elements that play a key role in the evolution of bacteria by mediating genome plasticity and lateral transfer of useful genetic information. Although originally considered to be exclusively circular, linear plasmids have also been identified in certain bacterial phyla, notably the actinomycetes. In some cases, linear plasmids(More)
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a key role in the epigenetic regulation of cells. Many of these lncRNAs function by interacting with histone repressive proteins of the Polycomb group (PcG) family, recruiting them to gene loci to facilitate silencing. Although there are now many RNAs known to interact with the PRC2 complex, little is known about the(More)
The energetic (ATP) cost of biochemical pathways critically determines the maximum yield of metabolites of vital or commercial relevance. Cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is a key precursor for biosynthesis in eukaryotes and for many industrially relevant product pathways that have been introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, such as isoprenoids(More)
Agriculture faces great challenges to ensure global food security by increasing yields while reducing environmental costs. Here we address this challenge by conducting a total of 153 site-year field experiments covering the main agro-ecological areas for rice, wheat and maize production in China. A set of integrated soil-crop system management practices(More)
Tomato flower abscises at the anatomically distinct abscission zone that separates the pedicel into basal and apical portions. During abscission, cell separation occurs only at the abscission zone indicating distinctive molecular regulation in its cells. We conducted a transcriptome analysis of tomato pedicel tissues during ethylene promoted abscission. We(More)