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Argonaute (AGO) proteins recruit small RNAs to form the core of RNAi effector complexes. Arabidopsis encodes ten AGO proteins and a large network of small RNAs. How these small RNAs are sorted into specific AGO complexes remains largely unknown. We have cataloged small RNAs resident in four AGO complexes. We found that AGO2 and AGO4 preferentially recruit(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small silencing RNAs with regulatory roles in gene expression. miRNAs interact with Argonaute (AGO) proteins to form effector complexes that cleave target mRNAs or repress translation. Rice (Oryza sativa) encodes four AGO1 homologs (AGO1a, AGO1b, AGO1c, and AGO1d). We used RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down the four AGO1s. The RNAi(More)
In plants, the known microRNAs (miRNAs) are produced as approximately 21 nucleotide (nt) duplexes from their precursors by Dicer-like 1 (DCL1). They are incorporated into Argonaute 1 (AGO1) protein to regulate target gene expression primarily through mRNA cleavage. We report here the discovery of a class of miRNAs in the model monocot rice (Oryza sativa).(More)
Nascent allohexaploid wheat may represent the initial genetic state of common wheat (Triticum aestivum), which arose as a hybrid between Triticum turgidum (AABB) and Aegilops tauschii (DD) and by chromosome doubling and outcompeted its parents in growth vigor and adaptability. To better understand the molecular basis for this success, we performed mRNA and(More)
Plasmids are mobile genetic elements that play a key role in the evolution of bacteria by mediating genome plasticity and lateral transfer of useful genetic information. Although originally considered to be exclusively circular, linear plasmids have also been identified in certain bacterial phyla, notably the actinomycetes. In some cases, linear plasmids(More)
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a key role in the epigenetic regulation of cells. Many of these lncRNAs function by interacting with histone repressive proteins of the Polycomb group (PcG) family, recruiting them to gene loci to facilitate silencing. Although there are now many RNAs known to interact with the PRC2 complex, little is known about the(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are indispensable regulators for development and defense in eukaryotes. However, the miRNA species have not been explored for rice (Oryza sativa) immunity against the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, the most devastating fungal pathogen in rice production worldwide. Here, by deep sequencing small RNA libraries from susceptible and(More)
Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has played a key role in enhancing food production and keeping half of the world's population adequately fed. However, decades of N fertilizer overuse in many parts of the world have contributed to soil, water, and air pollution; reducing excessive N losses and emissions is a central environmental challenge in the 21st(More)
This article presents the dynamic responses of several intra- and extracellular components of an aerobic, glucose-limited chemostat culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to glucose and ethanol pulses within a time window of 75 sec. Even though the ethanol pulse cannot perturb the glycolytic pathway directly, a distinct response of the metabolites at the lower(More)
Cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A is a precursor for many biotechnologically relevant compounds produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this yeast, cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis and growth strictly depend on expression of either the Acs1 or Acs2 isoenzyme of acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS). Since hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and pyrophosphate in the ACS reaction(More)