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In this report we have inspected whether difficulties in controlling viral infections negatively impacts the generation of CD127(high) memory T cells. Using both MHC class I and II tetramers we reveal that CD127(low) T cells are not necessarily rapidly deleted but can persist in a pseudoeffector state in which they display the hallmarks of activated(More)
The gp41 component of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) envelope glycoprotein (Env) contains a long cytoplasmic domain (CD) with multiple highly conserved tyrosine (Y) and dileucine (LL) motifs. Studies suggest that the motifs distal to major endocytosis motif (Y712HRL), located at residues 712-715 of Env, may contribute to Env functionality in the(More)
Introduction: Sodium ferulate (SF) is a natural component of traditional Chinese herbs. Our previous study shows that SF has a protective effect on osteoarthritis (OA). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of SF on the TNF/TNF receptor (TNFR) signal transduction pathway of rat OA chondrocytes. Methods: Primary rat articular chondrocytes(More)
The membrane-spanning domain (MSD) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp41 glycoprotein is critical for its biological activity. Previous C-terminal truncation studies have predicted an almost invariant core structure of 12 amino acid residues flanked by basic amino acids in the HIV-1 MSD that function to anchor the glycoprotein in the lipid(More)
Ferulic acid (FA), a member of the hydroxycinnamate family, is an abundant dietary antioxidant that may offer beneficial effects against cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis and Alzheimer's disease. In this study, evidence for sulfation and glucuronidation of FA was investigated upon incubation with human liver microsomes and cytosol.(More)
Paraoxonase-1 (PON1), a high-density-lipoprotein- (HDL-) associated enzyme, has the potential to protect against atherogenesis. We examine the relationships between plasma PON1 activity and the progression of atherosclerosis as well as coronary artery disease (CAD). Fasting blood samples were collected from female apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice(More)
1. Oxidation, inflammation and apoptosis are involved in the aetiology and pathology of osteoarthritis (OA). Sodium ferulate (SF) has been demonstrated to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic actions in cardiovascular, hepatic and diabetic disorders. These findings suggest that SF may have beneficial effects on OA. Therefore, present(More)
The membrane-spanning domain (MSD) of the envelope (Env) glycoprotein from human (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency viruses plays a key role in anchoring the Env complex into the viral membrane but also contributes to its biological function in fusion and virus entry. In HIV type 1 (HIV-1), it has been predicted to span 27 amino acids, from lysine residue(More)
We sought design principles for a vaccine to prevent HIV transmission to women by identifying correlates of protection conferred by a highly effective live attenuated SIV vaccine in the rhesus macaque animal model. We show that SIVmac239Δnef vaccination recruits plasma cells and induces ectopic lymphoid follicle formation beneath the mucosal epithelium in(More)