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Astrocytic energy demand is stimulated by K(+) and glutamate uptake, signaling processes, responses to neurotransmitters, Ca(2+) fluxes, and filopodial motility. Astrocytes derive energy from glycolytic and oxidative pathways, but respiration, with its high-energy yield, provides most adenosine 5' triphosphate (ATP). The proportion of cortical oxidative(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM Differentiating Crohn's disease from intestinal tuberculosis often challenges clinicians in countries where tuberculosis and Crohn's disease coexist. The aim of this study was to screen out clinical, endoscopic and histological features which may be helpful in distinguishing Crohn's disease from intestinal tuberculosis. METHODS 43(More)
It is well known that orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) transmission is spectrally efficient but power inefficient due to the large peak-to-average power ratio (PAR) of the OFDM signal. Selected mapping (SLM) is a promising PAR reduction technique that is distortionless and has good PAR reducing capability. In SLM, the phases of the(More)
In general, the risk of joint extreme outcomes in financial markets can be expressed as a function of the tail dependence function of a high-dimensional vector after standardizing marginals. Hence it is of importance to model and estimate tail dependence functions. Even for moderate dimension, nonparametrically estimating a tail dependence function is very(More)
There are multiple isoforms of the Na,K-ATPase in the nervous system, three isoforms of the ␣ subunit, and at least two of the ␤ subunit. The ␣ subunit is the catalytic subunit. The ␤ subunit has several roles. It is required for enzyme assembly, it has been implicated in neuron-glia adhesion, and the experimental exchange of ␤ subunit isoforms modifies(More)
Acute liver failure (ALF) is characterized neuropathologically by cytotoxic brain edema and biochemically by increased brain ammonia and its detoxification product, glutamine. The osmotic actions of increased glutamine synthesis in astrocytes are considered to be causally related to brain edema and its complications (intracranial hypertension, brain(More)
Obesity is associated with a state of chronic low-grade inflammation, which contributes to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms that link obesity to inflammation are not fully understood. Follistatin-like 1 (FSTL1) is a novel proinflammatory cytokine that is expressed in adipose tissue and secreted by(More)
P21-activated protein kinase1 (PAK1), a main downstream effector of small Rho GTPases, Rac1, and Cdc42, plays an important role in the regulation of cell morphogenesis, motility, mitosis, and angiogenesis. Despite its importance, the molecular mechanisms of PAK1 that contributed to colorectal carcinogenesis remain unclear. Our immunohistochemistry showed(More)
Computer scientists are always eager to have a powerful, robust and stable compiler infrastructure. However, until recently, researchers had to either use available and often unstable research compilers , create new ones from scratch, try to hack open-source non-research compilers or use source to source tools. It often requires duplication of a large(More)
Although Microcystis-based toxins have been intensively studied, previous studies using laboratory cultures of Microcystis strains are difficult to explain the phenomenon that microcystin concentrations and toxin variants in natural blooms differ widely and frequently within a short-term period. The present study was designed to unravel the mechanisms for(More)