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Since its introduction in 2001, MrBayes has grown in popularity as a software package for Bayesian phylogenetic inference using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. With this note, we announce the release of version 3.2, a major upgrade to the latest official release presented in 2003. The new version provides convergence diagnostics and allows multiple(More)
The vast majority of phylogenetic models focus on resolution of gene trees, despite the fact that phylogenies of species in which gene trees are embedded are of primary interest. We analyze a Bayesian model for estimating species trees that accounts for the stochastic variation expected for gene trees from multiple unlinked loci sampled from a single(More)
Several phylogenetic approaches have been developed to estimate species trees from collections of gene trees. However, maximum likelihood approaches for estimating species trees under the coalescent model are limited. Although the likelihood of a species tree under the multispecies coalescent model has already been derived by Rannala and Yang, it can be(More)
The estimation of species trees (phylogenies) is one of the most important problems in evolutionary biology, and recently, there has been greater appreciation of the need to estimate species trees directly rather than using gene trees as a surrogate. A Bayesian method constructed under the multispecies coalescent model can consistently estimate species(More)
The desire to infer the evolutionary history of a group of species should be more viable now that a considerable amount of multilocus molecular data is available. However, the current molecular phylogenetic paradigm still reconstructs gene trees to represent the species tree. Further, commonly used methods of combining data, such as the concatenation(More)
To better determine the history of modern birds, we performed a genome-scale phylogenetic analysis of 48 species representing all orders of Neoaves using phylogenomic methods created to handle genome-scale data. We recovered a highly resolved tree that confirms previously controversial sister or close relationships. We identified the first divergence in(More)
T he reconstruct ion of the T ree of Life has relied almost ent irely on concatenat ion methods, which do not accommodate gene tree heterogeneity, a property that simulat ions and theory have ident ified as a likely cause of incongruent phylogenies. However, this incongruence has not yet been demonstrated in empirical studies. Several key relat ionships(More)
In this study, we develop a distance method for inferring unrooted species trees from a collection of unrooted gene trees. The species tree is estimated by the neighbor joining (NJ) tree built from a distance matrix in which the distance between two species is defined as the average number of internodes between two species across gene trees, that is,(More)
Virtual machine placement is a process of mapping virtual machines to physical machines. The optimal placement is important for improving power efficiency and resource utilization in a cloud computing environment. In this paper, we propose a multi-objective ant colony system algorithm for the virtual machine placement problem. The goal is to efficiently(More)