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The Human Metabolome Database (HMDB, http://www.hmdb.ca) is a richly annotated resource that is designed to address the broad needs of biochemists, clinical chemists, physicians, medical geneticists, nutritionists and members of the metabolomics community. Since its first release in 2007, the HMDB has been used to facilitate the research for nearly 100(More)
The Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) is currently the most complete and comprehensive curated collection of human metabolite and human metabolism data in the world. It contains records for more than 2180 endogenous metabolites with information gathered from thousands of books, journal articles and electronic databases. In addition to its comprehensive(More)
RATIONALE Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex occurs when brief, non-startling tactile, acoustic or visual stimuli are presented 20-500 ms before the startling stimulus. OBJECTIVE To review information about PPI-mediating brain stem circuits and transmitters, and their functions. RESULTS Midbrain systems are most critical for the fast relay(More)
The startle reflex is elicited by intense tactile, acoustic or vestibular stimuli. Fast mechanoreceptors in each modality can respond to skin or head displacement. In each modality, stimulation of cranial nerves or primary sensory nuclei evokes startle-like responses. The most sensitive sites in rats are found in the ventral spinal trigeminal pathway,(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by selective loss of motor neurons (MNs). About 20% familial cases of ALS (fALS) carried the Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene mutation, which plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of fALS. There is evidence suggesting that macroautophagy can degrade mutated SOD1 in vitro. To(More)
Previous studies have shown that extensive damage to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats causes reversal learning deficits. The mPFC of rats, however, consists of several subareas that are different from each other in both cytoarchitecture and neural connectivity, suggesting a functional dissociation among the mPFC subareas. In the present study,(More)
Aberrant protein misfolding may contribute to the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) but the detailed mechanisms are largely unknown. Our previous study has shown that autophagy is altered in the mouse model of ALS. In the present study, we systematically investigated the correlation of the autophagic alteration with the motor neurons (MNs)(More)
Memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, reduces the clinical deterioration in moderate-to-severe Alzheimer disease (AD) for which other treatments are not available. The activity of protein phosphatase (PP)-2A is compromised in AD brain and is believed to be a cause of the abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau and the consequent(More)