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Development of chronic pain involves alterations in peripheral nociceptors as well as elevated neuronal activity in multiple regions of the CNS. Previous pharmacological and behavioral studies suggest that peripheral acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) contribute to pain sensation, and the expression of ASIC subunits is elevated in the rat spinal dorsal horn(More)
Depression is a devastating psychiatric disorder widely attributed to deficient monoaminergic signaling in the central nervous system. However, most clinical antidepressants enhance monoaminergic neurotransmission with little delay but require 4–8 weeks to reach therapeutic efficacy, a paradox suggesting that the monoaminergic hypothesis of depression is an(More)
The emotion of despair that occurs with uncontrollable stressful event is probably retained by memory, termed despair-associated memory, although little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Here, we report that forced swimming (FS) with no hope to escape, but not hopefully escapable swimming (ES), enhances hippocampal(More)
INTRODUCTION Vascular hyporeactivity is an important problem associated with sepsis. Although the mechanism involves inflammatory pathway activation, specific therapeutic approaches have not been defined. Glutamine (Gln) has been shown to provide some anti-inflammatory effects and improve outcomes in sepsis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Gln could(More)
Prenatal opiate exposure causes a series of neurobehavioral disturbances by affecting brain development. However, the question of whether prenatal opiate exposure increases vulnerability to memory-related neuropsychiatric disorders in adult offspring remains largely unknown. Here, we found that rats prenatally exposed to morphine (PM) showed impaired(More)
BACKGROUND Sepsis could induce indirect acute lung injury(ALI), and pulmonary vasomotor dysfunction. While low tidal volume is advocated for treatment of ALI patients. However, there is no evidence for low tidal volume that it could mitigate pulmonary vasomotor dysfunction in indirect ALI. Our study is to evaluate whether low tidal volume ventilation could(More)
—This brief discusses the economical design of a 14-b current steering digital-to-analog converter (DAC) macrocell for integration with other analog and digital macrocells in a system-on-chip (SOC). The DAC design is targeted for a standard 0.13-m six-metal single-poly CMOS process. A novel algorithm sets the switching order of individual current sources(More)
Alpha-linolenic acid (LIN) has been shown to provide neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia. LIN is a potent activator of TREK-1 channel and LIN-induced neuroprotection disappears in Trek1−/− mice, suggesting that this channel is directly related to the LIN-induced resistance of brain against ischemia. However, the cellular mechanism underlying(More)
Although product recommendation virtual agents (PRVAs) are used in a large number of online shopping websites, the optimal types of agents in this context remain unclear. In the present study, we tested whether agent appearance affects people's buying motivations and analyzed the key factors in persuading people to buy products. The experimental results(More)
1. The effects of nitrosocysteine (cys-NO), L-N omega-nitroarginine (L-NNA) and L-N omega-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME), oxyhaemoglobin and Methylene Blue were observed on the resting membrane potential, muscle tone and excitatory junction potentials (EJPs) of cat tracheal smooth muscle tissue. 2. Cys-NO (10(-9) to 10(-6) M) showed no effect on the(More)