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We generated a high-quality reference genome sequence for foxtail millet (Setaria italica). The ∼400-Mb assembly covers ∼80% of the genome and >95% of the gene space. The assembly was anchored to a 992-locus genetic map and was annotated by comparison with >1.3 million expressed sequence tag reads. We produced more than 580 million RNA-Seq reads to(More)
Vascular plants appeared ~410 million years ago, then diverged into several lineages of which only two survive: the euphyllophytes (ferns and seed plants) and the lycophytes. We report here the genome sequence of the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii (Selaginella), the first nonseed vascular plant genome reported. By comparing gene content in(More)
While progenitor-restricted factors broadly specify area identities in developing neocortex, the downstream regulatory elements involved in acquisition of those identities in postmitotic neurons are largely unknown. Here, we identify Bhlhb5, a transcription factor expressed in layers II-V, as a postmitotic regulator of area identity. Bhlhb5 is initially(More)
The mammalian retina comprises six major neuronal cell types and one glial type that are further classified into multiple subtypes based on their anatomical and functional differences. Nevertheless, how these subtypes arise remains largely unknown at the molecular level. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of Bhlhb5, a bHLH transcription factor of the(More)
CLC proteins transport chloride (Cl(-)) ions across cell membranes to control the electrical potential of muscle cells, transfer electrolytes across epithelia, and control the pH and electrolyte composition of intracellular organelles. Some members of this protein family are Cl(-) ion channels, whereas others are secondary active transporters that exchange(More)
Carbonic anhydrase, a zinc enzyme found in organisms from all kingdoms, catalyses the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide and is used for inorganic carbon acquisition by phytoplankton. In the oceans, where zinc is nearly depleted, diatoms use cadmium as a catalytic metal atom in cadmium carbonic anhydrase (CDCA). Here we report the crystal structures of(More)
Math5-null mutation results in the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and in a concurrent increase of amacrine and cone cells. However, it remains unclear whether there is a cell fate switch of Math5-lineage cells in the absence of Math5 and whether MATH5 cell-autonomously regulates the differentiation of the above retinal neurons. Here, we performed a(More)
Regulated intramembrane proteolysis by members of the site-2 protease (S2P) family is an important signaling mechanism conserved from bacteria to humans. Here we report the crystal structure of the transmembrane core domain of an S2P metalloprotease from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. The protease consists of six transmembrane segments, with the catalytic(More)
Optical communications and computing require on-chip nonreciprocal light propagation to isolate and stabilize different chip-scale optical components. We have designed and fabricated a metallic-silicon waveguide system in which the optical potential is modulated along the length of the waveguide such that nonreciprocal light propagation is obtained on a(More)