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While progenitor-restricted factors broadly specify area identities in developing neocortex, the downstream regulatory elements involved in acquisition of those identities in postmitotic neurons are largely unknown. Here, we identify Bhlhb5, a transcription factor expressed in layers II-V, as a postmitotic regulator of area identity. Bhlhb5 is initially(More)
Math5-null mutation results in the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and in a concurrent increase of amacrine and cone cells. However, it remains unclear whether there is a cell fate switch of Math5-lineage cells in the absence of Math5 and whether MATH5 cell-autonomously regulates the differentiation of the above retinal neurons. Here, we performed a(More)
Nitrite and nitrate are main stable products of nitric oxide, a pivotal cellular signaling molecule, in biological fluids. Therefore, accurate measurement of the two ions is profoundly important. Nitrite is difficult to be determined for a larger number of interferences and unstable in the presence of oxygen. In this paper, a simple, cost-effective and(More)
POU-domain transcription factors play essential roles in cell proliferation and differentiation. Previous studies have shown that targeted deletion of each of the three POU-domain Brn3 factors in mice leads to the developmental failure and apoptosis of a unique set of sensory neurons in retina, dorsal root ganglia, trigeminal ganglia and inner ear. The(More)
BACKGROUND Levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-creative protein (CRP) indicating systemic inflammation are known to be elevated in chronic diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and depression. Comorbid depression is common in patients with COPD, but no studies have investigated whether proinflammatory cytokines mediate the(More)
The mammalian retina comprises six major neuronal cell types and one glial type that are further classified into multiple subtypes based on their anatomical and functional differences. Nevertheless, how these subtypes arise remains largely unknown at the molecular level. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of Bhlhb5, a bHLH transcription factor of the(More)
Diabetic encephalopathy (DE) has been characterized by the impaired cognition and the abnormalities of neurochemistry and neurostructure. The study was conducted to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of paeonol on STZ-induced DE rats. Paeonol of 25, 50, 100mg/kg (p.o.) could decrease the latency time and path length, and enhance significantly the spent(More)
Immunomodulatory effect has been found to be an important therapeutic measure for immune responses against cancer. In this study, we evaluated the inhibition of Scutellaria barbata D. Don (SB), an anti-inflammatory and an antitumor Chinese herb, including flavonoids and scutebarbatines on tumor growth and its immunomodulatory effects in vivo. HPLC and(More)
BACKGROUND Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng (PG), is used widely as a herbal medicine to prevent and treat various diseases. Panax ginseng has pharmacological effects on neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study evaluated the neuroprotective effects of PG and its possible neuroprotective mechanisms in advanced(More)
We report on near infrared semiconductor nanopatch lasers with subwavelength-scale physical dimensions (0.019 cubic wavelengths) and effective mode volumes (0.0017 cubic wavelengths). We observe lasing in the two most fundamental optical modes which resemble oscillating electrical and magnetic dipoles. The ultra-small laser volume is achieved with the(More)