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Stimulus specific adaptation (SSA) is known as a decrease of neuronal response to stimuli that are commonly presented than those rarely occurred. Previous studies have shown that SSA occurs at different levels of auditory pathway, from inferior colliculus (IC), auditory thalamus to auditory cortex (AC). In this study, we further investigated the properties(More)
Signaling mechanisms underlying neurotrophic regulation of synaptic transmission are not fully understood. Here we show that neurotrophin-3 (NT3)-induced potentiation of synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular synapses is blocked by inhibition of phosphoinositide-3 kinase, phospholipase C-gamma or the downstream IP3 receptors of phospholipase C-gamma,(More)
While progenitor-restricted factors broadly specify area identities in developing neocortex, the downstream regulatory elements involved in acquisition of those identities in postmitotic neurons are largely unknown. Here, we identify Bhlhb5, a transcription factor expressed in layers II-V, as a postmitotic regulator of area identity. Bhlhb5 is initially(More)
CLC proteins transport chloride (Cl(-)) ions across cell membranes to control the electrical potential of muscle cells, transfer electrolytes across epithelia, and control the pH and electrolyte composition of intracellular organelles. Some members of this protein family are Cl(-) ion channels, whereas others are secondary active transporters that exchange(More)
Vascular plants appeared ~410 million years ago, then diverged into several lineages of which only two survive: the euphyllophytes (ferns and seed plants) and the lycophytes. We report here the genome sequence of the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii (Selaginella), the first nonseed vascular plant genome reported. By comparing gene content in(More)
Migration is a basic feature of many cell types in a wide range of species. Since the 1800s, cell migration has been proposed to occur in the nervous and immune systems, and distinct molecular cues for mammalian neurons and leukocytes have been identified. Here we report that Slit, a secreted protein previously known for its role of repulsion in axon(More)
Central core disease (CCD) is a congenital myopathy due to dominant mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1). The authors report three patients from two consanguineous families with symptoms of a congenital myopathy, cores on muscle biopsy, and confirmed linkage to the RYR1 locus. Molecular genetic studies in one family identified a(More)
Carbonic anhydrase, a zinc enzyme found in organisms from all kingdoms, catalyses the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide and is used for inorganic carbon acquisition by phytoplankton. In the oceans, where zinc is nearly depleted, diatoms use cadmium as a catalytic metal atom in cadmium carbonic anhydrase (CDCA). Here we report the crystal structures of(More)
We introduce a new method for the purification of recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli using self-cleaving elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) fusion tags without the need for affinity chromatography or proteolytic tag removal. Using this method we obtained high purity, activity and reasonable yields for ten diverse target proteins.