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Recently, we developed a mass DNA-mediated transformation technique for the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila that introduces transforming DNA by electroporation into conjugating cells. Other studies demonstrated that a neomycin resistance gene flanked by Tetrahymena H4-I gene regulatory sequences transformed Tetrahymena by homologous recombination(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) regulate gene expression in eukaryotes. Plant miRNAs modulate their targets mainly via messenger RNA (mRNA) cleavage. Small RNA (sRNA) targets have been extensively investigated in Arabidopsis using computational prediction, experimental validation, and degradome sequencing. However, small RNA targets(More)
In Tetrahymena, at least 17 distinct microtubule structures are assembled from a single primary sequence type of alpha- and beta-tubulin heterodimer, precluding distinctions among microtubular systems based on tubulin primary sequence isotypes. Tetrahymena tubulins also are modified by several types of posttranslational reactions including acetylation of(More)
Protein arginine methylation, one of the most abundant and important posttranslational modifications, is involved in a multitude of biological processes in eukaryotes, such as transcriptional regulation and RNA processing. Symmetric arginine dimethylation is required for snRNP biogenesis and is assumed to be essential for pre-mRNA splicing; however, except(More)
Replacement of lysine-350 by methionine in the beta-tubulin gene of Chlamydomonas confers resistance to microtubule-depolymerizing drugs and increased sensitivity to the microtubule-stabilizing drug taxol. This mutation was created in cloned BTU1, one of two coexpressed beta-tublin genes of Tetrahymena thermophila. When introduced by electroporation, the(More)
DNA methylation and histone H3 Lys 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) are important epigenetic repression marks for silencing transposons in heterochromatin and for regulating gene expression. However, the mechanistic relationship to other repressive marks, such as histone H3 Lys 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) is unclear. FERTILIZATION-INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM1 (FIE1)(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play key regulatory roles in numerous developmental and physiological processes in animals and plants. The elaborate mechanism of miRNA biogenesis involves transcription and multiple processing steps. Here, we report the identification of a pair of evolutionarily conserved NOT2_3_5 domain-containing-proteins, NOT2a and NOT2b (previously(More)
Transposable elements (TEs) and repetitive sequences make up over 35% of the rice (Oryza sativa) genome. The host regulates the activity of different TEs by different epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone H3K9 methylation, and histone H3K4 demethylation. TEs can also affect the expression of host genes. For example, miniature inverted(More)
The mechanism by which nuclear and cytoplasmic filaments are sorted in vivo was studied by examining which lamin sequences are required to target an otherwise cytoplasmic IF protein, the small neurofilament subunit (NF-L), to the nuclear lamina. By swapping corresponding domains between NF-L and lamin A, nuclear envelope targeting of NF-L was shown to(More)
Mammalian cells regulate tubulin mRNA abundance by a posttranscriptional mechanism dependent on the concentration of tubulin monomer. Treatment of mammalian cells with microtubule-depolymerizing drugs and microtubule-polymerizing drugs causes decreases and increases in tubulin mRNA, respectively (D. W. Cleveland, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 1:10-14, 1989). In(More)