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Mycobacteria are responsible for a number of human and animal diseases and are classical intracellular pathogens, living inside macrophages rather than as free-living organisms during infection. Numerous intracellular pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexneri, and Rickettsia rickettsii, exploit the host cytoskeleton by using actin-based(More)
Mycobacteria, such as the etiological agent of human tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are protected by an impermeable cell envelope composed of an inner cytoplasmic membrane, a peptidoglycan layer, an arabinogalactan layer, and an outer membrane. This second membrane consists of covalently linked, tightly packed long-chain mycolic acids [1,2] and(More)
Pathogenic mycobacteria survive and replicate within host macrophages, but the molecular mechanisms involved in this necessary step in the pathogenesis of infection are not completely understood. Mycobacterium marinum has recently been used as a model for aspects of the pathogenesis of tuberculosis because of its close genetic relationship to Mycobacterium(More)
The Legionnaires' disease bacterium, Legionella pneumophila, is a facultative intracellular pathogen that invades and replicates within two evolutionarily distant hosts, free living protozoa and mammalian cells. Invasion and intracellular replication within protozoa are thought to be major factors in the transmission of Legionnaires' disease. We have(More)
Accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers ER stress that initiates unfolded protein response (UPR). XBP1 is a transcription factor that mediates one of the key signaling pathways of UPR to cope with ER stress through regulating gene expression. Activation of XBP1 involves an unconventional mRNA splicing(More)
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