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Sepia eumelanin is associated with many metal ions, yet little is known about its metal binding capacity and the chemical nature of the binding site(s). Herein, the natural concentrations of metal ions are presented and the ability to remove metals by exposure of the melanin granules to EDTA is quantified. The results reveal that the binding constants of(More)
Melanosomes were isolated from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), iris and choroid of mature (age >2 years) and newborn (age <1 week) bovine eyes. Scanning electron microscopy was utilized to analyze the morphology of the melanosomes, which were found to vary among different tissues and different ages. While the total content of amino acids differs(More)
Melanosomes in black and red human hair are isolated and characterized by various chemical and physical techniques. Different yields of 4-amino-hydroxyphenolanaline by HI hydrolysis (a marker for pheomelanin) and pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid by KMnO(4)/H(+) oxidation (a marker for eumelanin) indicate that the melanosomes in black hair are eumelanosomes,(More)
There is no consensus on the coordinating ligands for Cu(2+) by Abeta. However, the differences in peptide sequence between human and rat have been hypothesized to alter metal ion binding in a manner that alters Cu(2+)-induced aggregation of Abeta. Herein, we employ isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), circular dichroism (CD), and electron paramagnetic(More)
Melanosomes are organelles found in a wide variety of tissues throughout the animal kingdom and exhibit a range of different shapes: spheres of up to approximately 1 mum diameters and ellipsoids with lengths of up to approximately 2 mum and varying aspect ratios. The functions of melanosomes include photoprotection, mitigation of the effects of reactive(More)
Metal chelation is often invoked as one of the main biological functions of melanin. In order to understand the interaction between metals and melanin, extensive studies have been carried out to determine the nature of the metal binding sites, binding capacity, and affinity. These data are central to efforts aimed at elucidating the role metal binding plays(More)
Eumelanosomes and pheomelanosomes isolated from black and red human hair, respectively, were studied by photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM). PEEM images were collected at various wavelengths between 207 and 344 nm, using the spontaneous emission output of the Duke OK-4 free electron laser (FEL). Analysis of the FEL-PEEM data revealed ionization(More)
Melanosomes of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are relatively long-lived organelles that are theoretically susceptible to changes induced by exposure to visible light. Here melanosomes were isolated from porcine RPE cells and subjected to high intensity visible light to determine the effects of illumination on melanosome structure and on the content(More)
This review examines recent studies on the thermodynamics of copper association with amyloid-β, α-synuclein and prion protein, with an eye towards using this information to understand the etiology of associated neurodegenerative diseases. A variety of binding affinities and binding sites, which are essential to understand the function and consequence of(More)
The binding of Mg(II), Ca(II), Zn(II), Cu(II) and Fe(III) to ETDA-washed Sepia melanin is quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. By monitoring the solution pH change associated with metal uptake, it is concluded that Mg(II), Ca(II) and Zn(II) bind to carboxylic acid groups in melanin, Cu(II) binds to hydroxyl (OH) groups and Fe(III)(More)