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Melanosomes are organelles found in a wide variety of tissues throughout the animal kingdom and exhibit a range of different shapes: spheres of up to approximately 1 mum diameters and ellipsoids with lengths of up to approximately 2 mum and varying aspect ratios. The functions of melanosomes include photoprotection, mitigation of the effects of reactive(More)
There is no consensus on the coordinating ligands for Cu(2+) by Abeta. However, the differences in peptide sequence between human and rat have been hypothesized to alter metal ion binding in a manner that alters Cu(2+)-induced aggregation of Abeta. Herein, we employ isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), circular dichroism (CD), and electron paramagnetic(More)
Metal chelation is often invoked as one of the main biological functions of melanin. In order to understand the interaction between metals and melanin, extensive studies have been carried out to determine the nature of the metal binding sites, binding capacity, and affinity. These data are central to efforts aimed at elucidating the role metal binding plays(More)
Melanosomes in black and red human hair are isolated and characterized by various chemical and physical techniques. Different yields of 4-amino-hydroxyphenolanaline by HI hydrolysis (a marker for pheomelanin) and pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid by KMnO(4)/H(+) oxidation (a marker for eumelanin) indicate that the melanosomes in black hair are eumelanosomes,(More)
Eumelanosomes and pheomelanosomes isolated from black and red human hair, respectively, were studied by photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM). PEEM images were collected at various wavelengths between 207 and 344 nm, using the spontaneous emission output of the Duke OK-4 free electron laser (FEL). Analysis of the FEL-PEEM data revealed ionization(More)
Melanosomes of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are relatively long-lived organelles that are theoretically susceptible to changes induced by exposure to visible light. Here melanosomes were isolated from porcine RPE cells and subjected to high intensity visible light to determine the effects of illumination on melanosome structure and on the content(More)
Melanosomes were isolated from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), iris and choroid of mature (age >2 years) and newborn (age <1 week) bovine eyes. Scanning electron microscopy was utilized to analyze the morphology of the melanosomes, which were found to vary among different tissues and different ages. While the total content of amino acids differs(More)
A technique for measuring the photoionization spectrum and the photoelectron emission threshold of a microscopic structured material is presented. The theoretical underpinning of the experiment and the accuracy of the measurements are discussed. The technique is applied to titanium silicide nanostructures and melanosomes isolated from human hair, human and(More)
Melanosomes and lipofuscin were isolated from 14-, 59-, and 76-year-old, human retinal pigment epithelium specimens and examined. The morphological features of these samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, and the photoionization properties were examined by photoelectron emission microscopy. Ovoid- and rod-shaped(More)
Free electron laser-photoelectron emission microscopy (FEL-PEEM), femtosecond absorption spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements of oxygen photoconsumption were used to probe the threshold potential for ionization of eumelanosomes and pheomelanosomes isolated from human hair. FEL-PEEM data show that both pigments are(More)