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Cell expansion is a central process in plant morphogenesis, and the elongation of roots and root hairs is essential for uptake of minerals and water from the soil. Ca2+ influx from the extracellular store is required for (and sets the rates of) cell elongation in roots. Arabidopsis thaliana rhd2 mutants are defective in Ca2+ uptake and consequently cell(More)
The anatomy of the developing root of Arabidopsis is described using conventional histological techniques, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The root meristem is derived from cells of the hypophysis and adjacent cells of the embryo proper. The postembryonic organization of the root is apparent in the mature embryo and is maintained in the(More)
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a class of transcription factors found throughout eukaryotic organisms. Classification of the complete sets of bHLH proteins in the sequenced genomes of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa (rice) has defined the diversity of these proteins among flowering plants. However, the evolutionary relationships of(More)
Evidence is provided that ethylene is a positive regulator of hair cell development in the root epidermis of Arabidopsis thaliana. Treatment of seedlings with increasing concentrations of the ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) results in progressively more root hair cells developing in positions normally occupied by non-hair(More)
Postmitotic cell growth defines cell shape and size during development. However, the mechanisms regulating postmitotic cell growth in plants remain unknown. Here we report the discovery of a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor called RSL4 (ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE 6-LIKE 4) that is sufficient to promote postmitotic cell growth in Arabidopsis(More)
The specification and maintenance of growth sites are tightly regulated during cell morphogenesis in all organisms. ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE 2 reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (RHD2 NADPH) oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulate a Ca2+ influx into the cytoplasm that is required for root hair growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. We(More)
Root hairs and rhizoids are cells with rooting functions in land plants. We describe two basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control root hair development in the sporophyte (2n) of the angiosperm Arabidopsis thaliana and rhizoid development in the gametophytes (n) of the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. The phylogeny of land plants supports(More)
Root hair initiation involves the formation of a bulge at the basal end of the trichoblast by localized diffuse growth. Tip growth occurs subsequently at this initiation site and is accompanied by the establishment of a polarized cytoplasmic organization. Arabidopsis plants homozygous for a complete loss-of-function tiny root hair 1 (trh1) mutation were(More)