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The colonic mucus gel layer (MGL) is a critical component of the innate immune system acting as a physical barrier to microbes, luminal insults, and toxins. Mucins are the major component of the MGL. Selected microbes have the potential to interact with, bind to, and metabolize mucins. The tolerance of the host to the presence of these microbes is critical(More)
BACKGROUND Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) is a treatment option for intractable fecal incontinence. The mechanism of action is unclear, however, increasing evidence for afferent somatosensory effects exists. This study's aim was to elucidate effects of acute SNM on the cerebral cortex in a rodent model of pudendal nerve injury. METHODS The effects of 14 Hz(More)
BACKGROUND Sacral nerve stimulation has become a first line treatment for fecal incontinence, however, its effect on the motor function of the anorectum is uncertain. The aim of this study was to apply acute lumbosacral nerve stimulation in an animal model and to determine its effect on the external and internal anal sphincter forces, the rectoanal(More)
INTRODUCTION Although sacral neuromodulation (SNM) is an established treatment for faecal incontinence, stimulation parameters have been derived empirically and only one frequency (14 Hz) is employed clinically. The aim of this study was to test a range of stimulation frequencies to establish an optimal frequency of SNM for maximum augmentation of anal(More)
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