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HYDRUS-1D was used to simulate water flow and leaching of fecal coliforms and bromide (Br) through six undisturbed soil lysimeters (70 cm depth by 50 cm diameter) under field conditions. Dairy shed effluent (DSE) spiked with Br was applied to the lysimeters, which contained fine sandy loam layers. This application was followed by fortnightly spray or flood(More)
Information about the microbial removal efficiencies of subsurface media is essential for assessing the risk of water contamination, estimating setback distances between disposal fields and receiving waters, and selecting suitable sites for wastewater reclamation. By analyzing published data from field experiments and large intact soil cores, an extensive(More)
BACKGROUND Baicalin is one of flavonoid extracts from Scutellaria baicalensis, which has several functions including anti-inflammation, anti-bacteria, antitumor and et al. However, the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory of baicalin in ulcerative colitis is not clear. METHODS Mice colitis models were established by dextran sodium sulfate, Mice administrated(More)
Setback distances between septic tank systems and the shorelines of Lake Okareka, New Zealand were determined from model simulations for a worst-case scenario, using the highest hydraulic conductivity and gradient measured in the field, removal rates of the microbial indicators (Escherichia coli and F-RNA phages) determined from a column experiment, and(More)
This paper investigates the effects of pore-water velocity on chemical nonequilibrium during transport of Cd, Zn, and Pb through alluvial gravel columns. Three pore-water velocities ranging from 3 to 60 m/day were applied to triplicate columns for each metal. Model results for the symmetric breakthrough curves (BTCs) of tritium (3H2O) data suggest that(More)
Viruses are often associated with colloids in wastewater and could be transported with colloids into groundwater from land disposal of human and animal effluent and sludge, causing contamination of groundwater. To investigate the role of colloids in the transport of viruses in groundwater, experiments were conducted using a 2m long column packed with(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) antagonist (etanercept) treatment on the peripheral T cell reactivity of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). METHODS Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from 40 patients with AS at baseline, after 2 and 6 weeks of etanercept treatment or placebo treatment, and(More)
Accurate input data for leaching models are expensive and difficult to obtain which may lead to the use of "general" non-site-specific input data. This study investigated the effect of using different quality data on model outputs. Three models of varying complexity, GLEAMS, LEACHM, and HYDRUS-2D, were used to simulate pesticide leaching at a field trial(More)
A natural-gradient tracer experiment was conducted to study Cd transport in an alluvial gravel aquifer. Both a conservative tracer and Cd exhibited tailing in their breakthrough curves (BTCs), indicating the presence of nonequilibrium transport. Solute transport was evaluated using a three-dimensional nonequilibrium analytical model, and the results were(More)