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A model is presented that provides a resolution to a fundamental paradox in bone physiology, namely, that the strains applied to whole bone (i.e., tissue level strains) are much smaller (0.04-0.3 percent) than the strains (1-10 percent) that are necessary to cause bone signaling in deformed cell cultures (Rubin and Lanyon, J. Bone Joint Surg. 66A (1984)(More)
Mechanical loading is an important regulator of bone formation and bone loss. Decreased osteoblast number and function are important cellular mechanisms by which mechanical disuse leads to decreased bone formation. Decreased osteoblast number may be a result of decreased osteoprogenitor proliferation, differentiation, or both. However, the effects of(More)
Fluid flow due to loading in bone is a potent mechanical signal that may play an important role in bone adaptation to its mechanical environment. Previous in vitro studies of osteoblastic cells revealed that the upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and c-fos induced by steady fluid flow depends on a change in actin polymerization dynamics and the(More)
Osteocytes are well evidenced to be the major mechanosensor in bone, responsible for sending signals to the effector cells (osteoblasts and osteoclasts) that carry out bone formation and resorption. Consistent with this hypothesis, it has been shown that osteocytes release various soluble factors (e.g. transforming growth factor-beta, nitric oxide, and(More)
Physical activity creates deformation in bone that leads to localized pressure gradients that drive interstitial fluid flow. Due to the cyclic nature of the applied load, this flow is oscillatory by nature. Oscillatory fluid flow (OFF) may lead to positive bone remodeling through effects on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts but its effect on(More)
Bone tissue forms and is remodeled in response to the mechanical forces that it experiences, a phenomenon described by Wolff's Law. Mechanically induced formation and adaptation of bone tissue is mediated by bone cells that sense and respond to local mechanical cues. In this review, the forces experienced by bone cells, the mechanotransduction pathways(More)
Structural adaptation of the bone tissue is mediated by loading-induced interstitial fluid flow within the bone microstructure. Within this framework, osteocytes fulfill the central mechanotransductive role in the bone remodeling process. While osteocytes have been demonstrated to be exquisitely sensitive to various forms of fluid flow stimulus in vitro,(More)
This paper presents a microfluidic system for cell type classification using mechanical and electrical measurements on single cells. Cells are aspirated continuously through a constriction channel with cell elongations and impedance profiles measured simultaneously. The cell transit time through the constriction channel and the impedance amplitude ratio are(More)
It is well known that cyclic mechanical loading can produce an anabolic response in bone. In vivo studies have shown that the insertion of short-term recovery periods (10-15 s) into mechanical loading profiles led to an increased osteogenic response compared to continuous cyclic loading of bone. Although this is suggestive of temporal processing at the bone(More)
Osteocyte apoptosis precedes osteoclast resorption, and may act as a critical signal to trigger bone remodeling. While osteoclast precursors are known to travel via the circulation, the specific mechanisms by which they accumulate at remodeling sites are unclear. We hypothesized that osteocyte apoptosis mediates osteoclast precursor adhesion to vascular(More)