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SUMMARY This paper considers nonparametric estimation in a varying coefficient model with repeated measurements (Yij, X tj , t u), r and (Yy, X tJ , t tJ) denote the yth outcome, covariate and time design points, respectively, of the ith subject. The model considered here is Y u = XjjPitij) + £i(t u), where fi{t) = {fi o (t),..., j? t (t)) T , for k ^ 0,(More)
PURPOSE To elucidate the role of activated microglia in the photoreceptor apoptosis of rd mice by identifying sequential events and factors associated with microglial activation, migration, and cytotoxicity during retinal degeneration. METHODS Photoreceptor apoptosis in rd mice at postnatal days (P)8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 was detected by terminal dUTP(More)
PURPOSE This study was designed to elucidate the role of inflammatory process in diabetic retinopathy and to investigate the effect of baicalein treatment on diabetic rat. METHODS Retinal microglial cells were identified with CD11b antibody, and retinal Müller cells were identified with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The gene expression of(More)
PURPOSE To elucidate the role of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in light-induced apoptosis of photoreceptors in culture and to explore the potential inhibitory effect of minocycline and sulforaphane on apoptosis. METHODS Apoptosis of 661W cells was induced by exposure to light and was detected by terminal(More)
Exposure to excessive levels of light induces photoreceptor apoptosis and has previously been used as a model for the study of retinal degeneration. During the light exposure, intracellular calcium levels increase, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated, which have been shown to cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In the present study, we(More)
PURPOSE To elucidate the inhibitory effect of minocycline and sulforaphane on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced retinal microglial activation and the mechanisms through which they exerted their inhibitory effects. METHODS Primary retinal microglial cultures were exposed to LPS with or without minocycline and sulforaphane. The mRNA expression of monocyte(More)
PURPOSE Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in a wide variety of neurodegenerative disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). This study was designed to elucidate the role of ER stress in photoreceptor apoptosis in the rd1 mouse. METHODS Photoreceptor apoptosis in the rd1 mouse was detected by terminal dUTP transferase nick-end(More)
BACKGROUND Metastasis in breast cancer is a vital concern in treatment because most women with primary breast cancer have micrometastases to distant sites at diagnosis. As a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, survivin has been proposed as an attractive target for new anticancer interventions. In this study, we investigated the role(More)
BACKGROUND Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor growth, invasion, and eventually metastasis. Antiangiogenic strategies have been proven to be a promising approach for clinical therapy for a variety of tumors. As a potent inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis, pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has recently been studied and used as an anticancer(More)