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Goudemand et al. replot a subset of our well-constrained data using a new Early Triassic biostratigraphic scheme based on a lower-resolution ammonoid zonation scheme and hypothetical ammonoid-conodont correlation to produce a less distinct seawater temperature history. We dispute their unsubstantiated correlation and, consequently, their allegations.
Inflammatory damage and oxidative stress play an important role in cerebral ischemic pathogenesis and may represent a target for treatment. Baicalein, isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Huangqin, is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent on one hand and a lipoxygenase inhibitor on the other hand. However, little is known regarding the(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have demonstrates that, after nerve injury, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activation in the spinal cord-initially in neurons, then microglia, and finally astrocytes. In addition, phosphorylation of ERK (p-ERK) contributes to nociceptive responses following inflammation and/or nerve injury. However, the role(More)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) released within the spinal cord induces phosphorylation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors on the spinal cord neurons. This process is necessary for maintaining pain hypersensitivity after nerve injury. However, little is known about the role of BDNF and NMDA receptors in cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP), whose(More)
In this study, we examined the involvement of chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the spinal cord of a rat model of cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP). In this model, CIBP was established by an intramedullary injection of Walker 256 cells into the tibia of rats. We observed a significant increase in expression levels of MCP-1 and its(More)
We have shown previously that neurofilaments and vimentin filaments expressed in nonneuronal cell lines can lengthen by joining ends in a process known as "end-to-end annealing." To test if this also occurs for neurofilaments in neurons, we transfected cultured rat cortical neurons with fluorescent neurofilament fusion proteins and then used photoconversion(More)
Ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1, major pharmacologically active ingredients from Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae), were applied in the differentiation media for human neural stem cells (hNSCs), together with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a commonly used compound for neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation. Cell locomotion and(More)
Although actin at neuronal growth cones is well-studied, much less is known about actin organization and dynamics along axon shafts and presynaptic boutons. Using probes that selectively label filamentous-actin (F-actin), we found focal "actin hotspots" along axons-spaced ∼3-4 µm apart-where actin undergoes continuous assembly/disassembly. These foci are a(More)
Maternal separation (MS), which can lead to hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis dysfunction and behavioral abnormalities in rhesus monkeys, is frequently used to model early adversity. Whether this deleterious effect on monkeys is reversible by later experience is unknown. In this study, we assessed the basal hair cortisol in rhesus monkeys after 1.5 and 3(More)
Grape is one of the most important fruit crops worldwide. The suitable geographical locations and productivity of grapes are largely limited by temperature. Vitis amurensis is a wild grapevine species with remarkable cold-tolerance, exceeding that of Vitis vinifera, the dominant cultivated species of grapevine. However, the molecular mechanisms that(More)