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Influenza virus remains a serious health threat, owing to its ability to evade immune surveillance through rapid genetic drift and reassortment. Here we used a human non-immune antibody phage-display library and the H5 hemagglutinin ectodomain to select ten neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) that were effective against all group 1 influenza viruses tested,(More)
S. typhimurium stimulates signaling pathways leading to membrane ruffling, actin cytoskeleton rearrangements, and nuclear responses. The stimulation requires a protein secretion system (type III) that translocates bacterial proteins into the host cell. We show that SopE, a substrate of this secretion system, stimulates cytoskeletal reorganization and JNK(More)
Molecular and antigenic analyses of three influenza viruses isolated from outbreaks of severe respiratory disease in racing greyhounds revealed that they are closely related to H3N8 equine influenza virus. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the canine influenza virus genomes form a monophyletic group, consistent with a single interspecies virus transfer.(More)
AIM This study explored the influences of transformational leadership on nurse innovation behaviour and the mediating role of organisational climate. BACKGROUND Recently, global nursing experts have been aggressively encouraging nurses to pursue innovation in nursing in order to improve nursing outcomes. Nursing innovation, in turn, is affected by nursing(More)
Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) has recently been identified as one of the key intracellular sensors of virus infection. RIG-I binds to cytosolic double-stranded RNA and initiates a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of transcription factors required for expression of type I interferon (IFN-I). Previous evidence suggests that(More)
In 2004, canine influenza virus subtype H3N8 emerged in greyhounds in the United States. Subsequent serologic evidence indicated virus circulation in dog breeds other than greyhounds, but the virus had not been isolated from affected animals. In 2005, we conducted virologic investigation of 7 nongreyhound dogs that died from respiratory disease in Florida(More)
To replicate, viruses must gain access to the host cell's resources. Interferon (IFN) regulates the actions of a large complement of interferon effector genes (IEGs) that prevent viral replication. The interferon inducible transmembrane protein family members, IFITM1, 2 and 3, are IEGs required for inhibition of influenza A virus, dengue virus, and West(More)
Numerous studies with transgenic plants have demonstrated that overexpression of enzymes related to organic acid metabolism under the control of CaMV 35S promoter increased organic acid exudation and Al-resistance. The synthesis of organic acids requires a large carbon skeleton supply from leaf photosynthesis. Thus, we produced transgenic tobacco(More)
The spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses across Asia in 2003 and 2004 devastated domestic poultry populations and resulted in the largest and most lethal H5N1 virus outbreak in humans to date. To better understand the potential of H5N1 viruses isolated during this epizootic event to cause disease in mammals, we used the mouse and ferret(More)
Adaptation of avian influenza viruses for replication and transmission in the human host is believed to require mutations in the hemagglutinin glycoprotein (HA) which enable binding to human alpha2-6 sialosides and concomitant reduction in affinity for avian alpha2-3 linked sialosides. Here, we show by glycan microarray analyses that the two mutations(More)