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In recent years, more attention has been paid to the role of the glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1, EAAT2) in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, experimental data on brain GLT-1 levels are, to some extent, inconsistent in human postmortem and animal studies. These discrepancies imply that the role of GLT-1 in the pathophysiology of MDD and the action of(More)
Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) is the main functional component of Cordycepins militaris, a renowned traditional Chinese medicine, which has been shown to possess anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and neuro-protective effects. However, the effect of cordycepin on the central nervous system (CNS) remains unclear. In this study, the effects of(More)
The neurotoxicity of β-amyloid protein (Aβ) contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and hence the attractive therapeutic strategies focusing on the modulation of Aβ-induced neurotoxicity are warranted. The present study aims to investigate the neuroprotection and underlying mechanisms by which Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge(More)
BACKGROUND There is increased interest in the contribution of the innate immune system to multiple sclerosis (MS), including the activity of acute inflammatory mediators. The purpose of this study was to test the involvement of systemic secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) enzymes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an MS model, and to(More)
Actin polymerization is important for vesicle fission during clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), and it has been proposed that actin polymerization may promote vesicle fission during CME by providing direct mechanical forces. However, there is no direct evidence in support of this hypothesis. In the present study, the role of actin polymerization in(More)
An internal fragment of the human neuroprotective polypeptide DSEP (Diffusible Survival Evasion Peptide) was delivered at 0.4 mg/kg (subcutaneously) 20-30 min after stab wound lesions in the parietal cortex of anesthetized rats. The peptide, CHEASAAQC or CHEC-9, inhibited the inflammatory response to the lesion and the degeneration of neurons adjacent to(More)
Transplantation of glial-restricted progenitors (GRPs) is a promising strategy for generating a supportive environment for axon growth in the injured spinal cord. Here we explored the possibility of producing a migratory stream of GRPs via directional cues to create a supportive pathway for axon regeneration. We found that the axon growth inhibitor(More)
BACKGROUND Lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs) are products of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme activity, and like the enzyme, have a direct role in toxic inflammatory responses in variety of organ systems. Paradoxically, reduced plasma lysoPC levels have been noted in sepsis patients and systemic treatment with lysoPCs is therapeutic in rodent models of(More)
The role of Ca²⁺ in synaptic vesicle endocytosis remains uncertain due to the diversity in various preparations where several forms of endocytosis may contribute variably in different conditions. Although recent studies have demonstrated that Ca²⁺ is important for clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), the mechanistic role of Ca²⁺ in CME remains to be(More)