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The addition or loss of synapses in response to changes in activity, disease, or aging is a major aspect of nervous system plasticity in the adult. The mechanisms that affect the turnover and maintenance of synapses in the adult are poorly understood and are difficult to investigate in the brain. Here, we exploited a unique anatomical arrangement in the(More)
The ErbB2 tyrosine kinase functions as coreceptor for the neuregulin receptors ErbB3 and ErbB4 and can participate in signaling of EGF receptor (ErbB1), interleukin receptor gp130, and G-protein coupled receptors. ErbB2(-/-) mice die at midgestation because of heart malformation. Here, we report a genetic rescue of their heart development by myocardial(More)
Cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha (cPLA(2)alpha) is the rate-limiting key enzyme that cleaves arachidonic acid (AA) from membrane phospholipids for the biosynthesis of eicosanoids, including prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), a key lipid mediator involved in inflammation and carcinogenesis. Here we show that cPLA(2)alpha protein is S-nitrosylated, and its(More)
It has been reported that MC-LR could induce apoptosis in a variety of cell types. Although the induction of oxidative stress and mitochondrial alteration played critical role in MC-LR induced apoptosis, but the exact mechanisms of MC-LR induced apoptosis are still unknown. In spite of extensive studies on MC-LR mediated cell damages, there is little(More)
Acute exposure to microcystin-LR (MC-LR) can induce the reorganization or disruption of the cytoskeleton, but proteins or enzymes correlated with this stress response have not been fully identified. Here, we report alterations to HSP27 during MC-LR-induced cytoskeletal reorganization in the human liver cell line HL7702. The cells incubated with MC-LR(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPARdelta) is a nuclear receptor implicated in lipid oxidation and the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes. This study was designed to examine the potential effect of PPARdelta on human cholangiocarcinoma cell growth and its mechanism of actions. Overexpression of PPARdelta or activation of PPARdelta by its(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor D (PPARD) is a nuclear transcription factor that is recently implicated in tumorigenesis besides lipid metabolism. This study describes the cross-talk between the PPARD and prostaglandin (PG) signaling pathways that coordinately regulate human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell growth. Activation of PPARD by its(More)
Microcystins (MCs) are a family of monocyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxins produced by freshwater species of cyanobacteria. Microcystin-LR (MCLR) is the most frequently studied and most toxic in over 80 MC congeners. Great deals of studies have demonstrated that MCLR can induce apoptosis in a wide variety of cell types. Although much evidence indicates that(More)
Microcystin-LR (MCLR) is one of the most common and most toxic members of the microcystins, which cause serious environmental disasters worldwide. Although the major toxicity of MCLR has been ascribed to its potent ability to inhibit protein phosphatase 1 and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), recent studies have suggested that MCLR may also perturb other(More)
Previous studies have shown that ultraviolet (UV) A light and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) can synergistically enhance the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in living cells. It has been postulated that the underlying mechanism is production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via photosensitization, but direct(More)